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So, we have already discussed the prerequisites for the creation of electronic currencies, as well as the appearance of the mysterious Satoshi Nakamoto. Today we will continue with this story. According to Satoshi himself, the idea of creating Bitcoin came to him in 2007. The announcement of the algorithm took place on October 31, 2008, when Satoshi published a «white paper» of bitcoin through the use of electronic mailing lists and sent it to all the addresses contained in the cypherpunk address book. When explaining the letter, he indicated that he had developed a peer-to-peer electronic money system, through which transactions could be performed directly but anonymously between the participants Satoshi called Bitcoin «e-cash» or «electronic cash». Later, in 2011, Forbes magazine published an article entitled «Crypto currency» dedicated to Bitcoin, after which the term «cryptocurrency» became common place for such systems. After the Electronic mailing, Satoshi and the cryptographers who joined him began work on the creation of a «client». In January 2009, Bitcoin 0.1 version was launched. Satoshi’s computer became the first «node», Hal Finney was the second to connect to the Blockchain network. In January the same year, the first block of coins was generated and the first transaction made. Satoshi had sent 10 bitcoins to Hal. In September 2009, the first exchange of bitcoin for real money was made — user Martti Malmi received $ 5.02 for 5050 bitcoins from user ‘NewLibertyStandard’ via PayPal. In fact, this transaction was both a purchase and a sale. In October, the bitcoin exchange rate was determined by multiplying the average computing power used to obtain one coin multiplied by the cost of electricity in the United States, and thus, 1309 bitcoins could be bought for $ 1. In November 2009, a forum was created on the website bitcoin.org where bitcoin enthusiasts could communicate with one another. With the growth in the number of nodes, the complexity of mining had increased, which in turn necessitated the search for newer ways to mine coins. Instead of mining using a CPU, Users began using the GPUs on video cards to improve the efficiency of their devices. During the same period, the user ArtForz created the first mining farm, which was a combination of several video cards constantly engaged in the mining process. On July 17, 2010, the first digital currency exchange’ MtGox’ was created. Only 10 years later with the help of NeuronChain, the first digital currency exchange NeuronEx was created which allows users to make digital transactions of not only cryptocurrency, but fiat money! Now all of the most popular digital currencies are available to transactions on NeuronEx — BTC, BCH, ETH, ETC, LTC, DASH, XRP, Dogecoin, EMC, EOS, BCH, BSV, EURT, USDT, CNHT, XAUT, as well as its own Neuron Coin — NRON. https://preview.redd.it/4lz79yjgevn51.jpg?width=1200&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=71467a05fae88c600f86c2380f9cd4aedcfa5802 #Finance #NeuronChain #blockchain #NeuronEx #NeuronWallet #CryptoNeuroNews #crypto
How To End The Cryptocurrency Exchange "Wild West" Without Crippling Innovation
In case you haven't noticed the consultation paper, staff notice, and report on Quadriga, regulators are now clamping down on Canadian cryptocurrency exchanges. The OSC and other regulatory bodies are still interested in industry feedback. They have not put forward any official regulation yet. Below are some ideas/insights and a proposed framework.
Typical securities frameworks will cost Canadians millions of dollars (ie Sarbanes-Oxley estimated at $5m USD/yr per firm). Implementation costs of this proposal are significantly cheaper.
Canadians can maintain a diverse set of exchanges, multiple viable business models are still fully supported, and innovation is encouraged while keeping Canadians safe.
Many of you have limited time to read the full proposal, so here are the highlights:
Effective standards to prevent both internal and external theft. Exchange operators are trained and certified, and have a legal responsibility to users.
Regular Transparent Audits
Provides visibility to Canadians that their funds are fully backed on the exchange, while protecting privacy and sensitive platform information.
Establishment of basic insurance standards/strategy, to expand over time. Removing risk to exchange users of any hot wallet theft.
Background and Justifications
Cold Storage Custody/Management After reviewing close to 100 cases, all thefts tend to break down into more or less the same set of problems: • Funds stored online or in a smart contract, • Access controlled by one person or one system, • 51% attacks (rare), • Funds sent to the wrong address (also rare), or • Some combination of the above. For the first two cases, practical solutions exist and are widely implemented on exchanges already. Offline multi-signature solutions are already industry standard. No cases studied found an external theft or exit scam involving an offline multi-signature wallet implementation. Security can be further improved through minimum numbers of signatories, background checks, providing autonomy and legal protections to each signatory, establishing best practices, and a training/certification program. The last two transaction risks occur more rarely, and have never resulted in a loss affecting the actual users of the exchange. In all cases to date where operators made the mistake, they've been fully covered by the exchange platforms. • 51% attacks generally only occur on blockchains with less security. The most prominent cases have been Bitcoin Gold and Ethereum Classic. The simple solution is to enforce deposit limits and block delays such that a 51% attack is not cost-effective. • The risk of transactions to incorrect addresses can be eliminated by a simple test transaction policy on large transactions. By sending a small amount of funds prior to any large withdrawals/transfers as a standard practice, the accuracy of the wallet address can be validated. The proposal covers all loss cases and goes beyond, while avoiding significant additional costs, risks, and limitations which may be associated with other frameworks like SOC II. On The Subject of Third Party Custodians Many Canadian platforms are currently experimenting with third party custody. From the standpoint of the exchange operator, they can liberate themselves from some responsibility of custody, passing that off to someone else. For regulators, it puts crypto in similar categorization to oil, gold, and other commodities, with some common standards. Platform users would likely feel greater confidence if the custodian was a brand they recognized. If the custodian was knowledgeable and had a decent team that employed multi-sig, they could keep assets safe from internal theft. With the right protections in place, this could be a great solution for many exchanges, particularly those that lack the relevant experience or human resources for their own custody systems. However, this system is vulnerable to anyone able to impersonate the exchange operators. You may have a situation where different employees who don't know each other that well are interacting between different companies (both the custodian and all their customers which presumably isn't just one exchange). A case study of what can go wrong in this type of environment might be Bitpay, where the CEO was tricked out of 5000 bitcoins over 3 separate payments by a series of emails sent legitimately from a breached computer of another company CEO. It's also still vulnerable to the platform being compromised, as in the really large $70M Bitfinex hack, where the third party Bitgo held one key in a multi-sig wallet. The hacker simply authorized the withdrawal using the same credentials as Bitfinex (requesting Bitgo to sign multiple withdrawal transactions). This succeeded even with the use of multi-sig and two heavily security-focused companies, due to the lack of human oversight (basically, hot wallet). Of course, you can learn from these cases and improve the security, but so can hackers improve their deception and at the end of the day, both of these would have been stopped by the much simpler solution of a qualified team who knew each other and employed multi-sig with properly protected keys. It's pretty hard to beat a human being who knows the business and the typical customer behaviour (or even knows their customers personally) at spotting fraud, and the proposed multi-sig means any hacker has to get through the scrutiny of 3 (or more) separate people, all of whom would have proper training including historical case studies. There are strong arguments both for and against using use of third party custodians. The proposal sets mandatory minimum custody standards would apply regardless if the cold wallet signatories are exchange operators, independent custodians, or a mix of both. On The Subject Of Insurance ShakePay has taken the first steps into this new realm (congratulations). There is no question that crypto users could be better protected by the right insurance policies, and it certainly feels better to transact with insured platforms. The steps required to obtain insurance generally place attention in valuable security areas, and in this case included a review from CipherTrace. One of the key solutions in traditional finance comes from insurance from entities such as the CDIC. However, historically, there wasn't found any actual insurance payout to any cryptocurrency exchange, and there are notable cases where insurance has not paid. With Bitpay, for example, the insurance agent refused because the issue happened to the third party CEO's computer instead of anything to do with Bitpay itself. With the Youbit exchange in South Korea, their insurance claim was denied, and the exchange ultimately ended up instead going bankrupt with all user's funds lost. To quote Matt Johnson in the original Lloyd's article: “You can create an insurance policy that protects no one – you know there are so many caveats to the policy that it’s not super protective.” ShakePay's insurance was only reported to cover their cold storage, and “physical theft of the media where the private keys are held”. Physical theft has never, in the history of cryptocurrency exchange cases reviewed, been reported as the cause of loss. From the limited information of the article, ShakePay made it clear their funds are in the hands of a single US custodian, and at least part of their security strategy is to "decline to confirm the custodian’s name on the record". While this prevents scrutiny of the custodian, it's pretty silly to speculate that a reasonably competent hacking group couldn't determine who the custodian is. A far more common infiltration strategy historically would be social engineering, which has succeeded repeatedly. A hacker could trick their way into ShakePay's systems and request a fraudulent withdrawal, impersonate ShakePay and request the custodian to move funds, or socially engineer their way into the custodian to initiate the withdrawal of multiple accounts (a payout much larger than ShakePay) exploiting the standard procedures (for example, fraudulently initiating or override the wallet addresses of a real transfer). In each case, nothing was physically stolen and the loss is therefore not covered by insurance. In order for any insurance to be effective, clear policies have to be established about what needs to be covered. Anything short of that gives Canadians false confidence that they are protected when they aren't in any meaningful way. At this time, the third party insurance market does not appear to provide adequate options or coverage, and effort is necessary to standardize custody standards, which is a likely first step in ultimately setting up an insurance framework. A better solution compared to third party insurance providers might be for Canadian exchange operators to create their own collective insurance fund, or a specific federal organization similar to the CDIC. Such an organization would have a greater interest or obligation in paying out actual cases, and that would be it's purpose rather than maximizing it's own profit. This would be similar to the SAFU which Binance has launched, except it would cover multiple exchanges. There is little question whether the SAFU would pay out given a breach of Binance, and a similar argument could be made for a insurance fund managed by a collective of exchange operators or a government organization. While a third party insurance provider has the strong market incentive to provide the absolute minimum coverage and no market incentive to payout, an entity managed by exchange operators would have incentive to protect the reputation of exchange operators/the industry, and the government should have the interest of protecting Canadians. On The Subject of Fractional Reserve There is a long history of fractional reserve failures, from the first banks in ancient times, through the great depression (where hundreds of fractional reserve banks failed), right through to the 2008 banking collapse referenced in the first bitcoin block. The fractional reserve system allows banks to multiply the money supply far beyond the actual cash (or other assets) in existence, backed only by a system of debt obligations of others. Safely supporting a fractional reserve system is a topic of far greater complexity than can be addressed by a simple policy, and when it comes to cryptocurrency, there is presently no entity reasonably able to bail anyone out in the event of failure. Therefore, this framework is addressed around entities that aim to maintain 100% backing of funds. There may be some firms that desire but have failed to maintain 100% backing. In this case, there are multiple solutions, including outside investment, merging with other exchanges, or enforcing a gradual restoration plan. All of these solutions are typically far better than shutting down the exchange, and there are multiple cases where they've been used successfully in the past. Proof of Reserves/Transparency/Accountability Canadians need to have visibility into the backing on an ongoing basis. The best solution for crypto-assets is a Proof of Reserve. Such ideas go back all the way to 2013, before even Mt. Gox. However, no Canadian exchange has yet implemented such a system, and only a few international exchanges (CoinFloor in the UK being an example) have. Many firms like Kraken, BitBuy, and now ShakePay use the Proof of Reserve term to refer to lesser proofs which do not actually cryptographically prove the full backing of all user assets on the blockchain. In order for a Proof of Reserve to be effective, it must actually be a complete proof, and it needs to be understood by the public that is expected to use it. Many firms have expressed reservations about the level of transparency required in a complete Proof of Reserve (for example Kraken here). While a complete Proof of Reserves should be encouraged, and there are some solutions in the works (ie TxQuick), this is unlikely to be suitable universally for all exchange operators and users. Given the limitations, and that firms also manage fiat assets, a more traditional audit process makes more sense. Some Canadian exchanges (CoinSquare, CoinBerry) have already subjected themselves to annual audits. However, these results are not presently shared publicly, and there is no guarantee over the process including all user assets or the integrity and independence of the auditor. The auditor has been typically not known, and in some cases, the identity of the auditor is protected by a NDA. Only in one case (BitBuy) was an actual report generated and publicly shared. There has been no attempt made to validate that user accounts provided during these audits have been complete or accurate. A fraudulent fractional exchange, or one which had suffered a breach they were unwilling to publicly accept (see CoinBene), could easily maintain a second set of books for auditors or simply exclude key accounts to pass an individual audit. The proposed solution would see a reporting standard which includes at a minimum - percentage of backing for each asset relative to account balances and the nature of how those assets are stored, with ownership proven by the auditor. The auditor would also publicly provide a "hash list", which they independently generate from the accounts provided by the exchange. Every exchange user can then check their information against this public "hash list". A hash is a one-way form of encryption, which fully protects the private information, yet allows anyone who knows that information already to validate that it was included. Less experienced users can take advantage of public tools to calculate the hash from their information (provided by the exchange), and thus have certainty that the auditor received their full balance information. Easy instructions can be provided. Auditors should be impartial, their identities and process public, and they should be rotated so that the same auditor is never used twice in a row. Balancing the cost of auditing against the needs for regular updates, a 6 month cycle likely makes the most sense. Hot Wallet Management The best solution for hot wallets is not to use them. CoinBerry reportedly uses multi-sig on all withdrawals, and Bitmex is an international example known for their structure devoid of hot wallets. However, many platforms and customers desire fast withdrawal processes, and human validation has a cost of time and delay in this process. A model of self-insurance or separate funds for hot wallets may be used in these cases. Under this model, a platform still has 100% of their client balance in cold storage and holds additional funds in hot wallets for quick withdrawal. Thus, the risk of those hot wallets is 100% on exchange operators and not affecting the exchange users. Since most platforms typically only have 1%-5% in hot wallets at any given time, it shouldn't be unreasonable to build/maintain these additional reserves over time using exchange fees or additional investment. Larger withdrawals would still be handled at regular intervals from the cold storage. Hot wallet risks have historically posed a large risk and there is no established standard to guarantee secure hot wallets. When the government of South Korea dispatched security inspections to multiple exchanges, the results were still that 3 of them got hacked after the inspections. If standards develop such that an organization in the market is willing to insure the hot wallets, this could provide an acceptable alternative. Another option may be for multiple exchange operators to pool funds aside for a hot wallet insurance fund. Comprehensive coverage standards must be established and maintained for all hot wallet balances to make sure Canadians are adequately protected.
Current Draft Proposal
(1) Proper multi-signature cold wallet storage. (a) Each private key is the personal and legal responsibility of one person - the “signatory”. Signatories have special rights and responsibilities to protect user assets. Signatories are trained and certified through a course covering (1) past hacking and fraud cases, (2) proper and secure key generation, and (3) proper safekeeping of private keys. All private keys must be generated and stored 100% offline by the signatory. If even one private keys is ever breached or suspected to be breached, the wallet must be regenerated and all funds relocated to a new wallet. (b) All signatories must be separate background-checked individuals free of past criminal conviction. Canadians should have a right to know who holds their funds. All signing of transactions must take place with all signatories on Canadian soil or on the soil of a country with a solid legal system which agrees to uphold and support these rules (from an established white-list of countries which expands over time). (c) 3-5 independent signatures are required for any withdrawal. There must be 1-3 spare signatories, and a maximum of 7 total signatories. The following are all valid combinations: 3of4, 3of5, 3of6, 4of5, 4of6, 4of7, 5of6, or 5of7. (d) A security audit should be conducted to validate the cold wallet is set up correctly and provide any additional pertinent information. The primary purpose is to ensure that all signatories are acting independently and using best practices for private key storage. A report summarizing all steps taken and who did the audit will be made public. Canadians must be able to validate the right measures are in place to protect their funds. (e) There is a simple approval process if signatories wish to visit any country outside Canada, with a potential whitelist of exempt countries. At most 2 signatories can be outside of aligned jurisdiction at any given time. All exchanges would be required to keep a compliant cold wallet for Canadian funds and have a Canadian office if they wish to serve Canadian customers. (2) Regular and transparent solvency audits. (a) An audit must be conducted at founding, after 3 months of operation, and at least once every 6 months to compare customer balances against all stored cryptocurrency and fiat balances. The auditor must be known, independent, and never the same twice in a row. (b) An audit report will be published featuring the steps conducted in a readable format. This should be made available to all Canadians on the exchange website and on a government website. The report must include what percentage of each customer asset is backed on the exchange, and how those funds are stored. (c) The auditor will independently produce a hash of each customer's identifying information and balance as they perform the audit. This will be made publicly available on the exchange and government website, along with simplified instructions that each customer can use to verify that their balance was included in the audit process. (d) The audit needs to include a proof of ownership for any cryptocurrency wallets included. A satoshi test (spending a small amount) or partially signed transaction both qualify. (e) Any platform without 100% reserves should be assessed on a regular basis by a government or industry watchdog. This entity should work to prevent any further drop, support any private investor to come in, or facilitate a merger so that 100% backing can be obtained as soon as possible. (3) Protections for hot wallets and transactions. (a) A standardized list of approved coins and procedures will be established to constitute valid cold storage wallets. Where a multi-sig process is not natively available, efforts will be undertaken to establish a suitable and stable smart contract standard. This list will be expanded and improved over time. Coins and procedures not on the list are considered hot wallets. (b) Hot wallets can be backed by additional funds in cold storage or an acceptable third-party insurance provider with a comprehensive coverage policy. (c) Exchanges are required to cover the full balance of all user funds as denominated in the same currency, or double the balance as denominated in bitcoin or CAD using an established trading rate. If the balance is ever insufficient due to market movements, the firm must rectify this within 24 hours by moving assets to cold storage or increasing insurance coverage. (d) Any large transactions (above a set threshold) from cold storage to any new wallet addresses (not previously transacted with) must be tested with a smaller transaction first. Deposits of cryptocurrency must be limited to prevent economic 51% attacks. Any issues are to be covered by the exchange. (e) Exchange platforms must provide suitable authentication for users, including making available approved forms of two-factor authentication. SMS-based authentication is not to be supported. Withdrawals must be blocked for 48 hours in the event of any account password change. Disputes on the negligence of exchanges should be governed by case law.
Continued review of existing OSC feedback is still underway. More feedback and opinions on the framework and ideas as presented here are extremely valuable. The above is a draft and not finalized. The process of further developing and bringing a suitable framework to protect Canadians will require the support of exchange operators, legal experts, and many others in the community. The costs of not doing such are tremendous. A large and convoluted framework, one based on flawed ideas or implementation, or one which fails to properly safeguard Canadians is not just extremely expensive and risky for all Canadians, severely limiting to the credibility and reputation of the industry, but an existential risk to many exchanges. The responsibility falls to all of us to provide our insight and make our opinions heard on this critical matter. Please take the time to give your thoughts.
How ironic that one day everyone began to hear that they were cryptocurrencies, but everything that referred to them was synonymous with Bitcoin everywhere they talk about it, the strange thing is that more than 10 have passed years since this project started and many continue with blindfolds, we have evolved, revolutionary things have come into our lives, the last decades have come technologies that have changed our paradigms, such as the internet and many more came one of them it's bitcoin. Bitcoin arose from the need for a safe, transparent and reliable money. All this is described by Satoshi Nakamoto in his white paper https://www.bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf this is at the hand of all so that we can see and read it and know how its structure is shaped and the purpose it has as a currency. Its operation occurred on January 3, 2009, when the genesis block of the chain was published, which was the first block mined in the network, bitcoin turns out to be for the time a magnificent money for the environment that was growing and its use was not long in Expanding its adoption, Hal Finney was one of the first people to support and contribute with Bitcoin since it was part of one of the first nodes, bitcoin has a maximum number of bitcoins that can be created on the network which is 21 million BTC Being this way it solves the problem of inflation since it is a deflationary currency, this system means that no more can be generated and its value will rise more over time due to the supply and demand that there will be in the market. Every time a transaction is made there will be a number of validators that work to verify that the network is correct, this is through the blockchain is the accounting book where all the transactions made from the genesis block are stored , it is public and we can all see how it works that they do not draw cards up their sleeves, these blocks are mined every 10 minutes with a size of 1 mb approximately 2048 transactions that were made and will be mined by a very important group called miners who solve a mathematical process called proof of work with this will be the final process for your BTC sent will already be in the hands of its recipient. To make a transaction you only need the address to which you want to send BTC or the QR code to be faster and select the amount in your wallet, with this you will only have to pay a commission for the work carried out by the miners that can vary depending on the time with which you want your transaction to be verified or to be mined in the next block of the chain. Today Bitcoin is the most important currency in the entire market with a strong ecosystem and a very large community that grows more for the security it offers, its price when making this post reaches $ 9,342.58 and a market capitalization of 168,004,364,619, $ 45 with which it takes the number 1 spot on the coinmarketCap list. original post. Bitcoin para principiantes
Fifty Years of Cypherpunk: History, Personalities, And Spread of its ideas
In this review, we tell how the ideas of cypherpunk were born, how they influenced cryptocurrencies, and modern technologies, who formed the basis and why its popularity these days has grown again.
From the early days to today: the chronology of key events of the cypherpunk
In the early 1970s,James Ellis of the UK Government Communications Center put forward the concept of public-key cryptography. In the early 1980s, small groups of hackers, mathematicians and cryptographers began working on the realization of this idea. One of them was an American cryptographer, Ph.D. David Chaum, who is sometimes called the godfather of cypherpunk. This new culture has proclaimed computer technology as a means of destroying state power and centralized management systems.Key figure among the cypherpunk of the 80s — Intel specialist Timothy C. May. His dream was to create a global system that allows anonymous exchange of information. He created the concept of the BlackNet system. In September 1988, May wrote The Crypto-Anarchist Manifesto: people themselves, without politicians, manage their lives, use cryptography, use digital currencies, and other decentralized tools.In 1989,David Chaum founded DigiCash an eCash digital money system with its CyberBucks and with the blind digital signature technology.Since 1992, Timothy May, John Gilmore (Electronic Frontier Foundation), and Eric Hughes (University of California) have begun holding secret meetings and regular PGP-encrypted mailing through anonymous remailer servers. And finally, in 1993 Eric Hughes published a fundamental document of the movement — А Cypherpunk's Manifesto. The importance of confidentiality, anonymous transactions, cryptographic protection — all these ideas were subsequently implemented in cryptocurrencies.The term "cypherpunk" was first used by hacker and programmer Jude Milhon to a group of crypto-anarchists.In 1995,Julian Assange, the creator of WikiLeaks, published his first post in cypherpunk mailing.In 1996,John Young and Deborah Natsios created the Cryptome, which published data related to security, privacy, freedom, cryptography. It is here that subsequently will be published data from the famous Edward Snowden.In 1997, cryptographerDr. Adam Back (you know him as CEO of Blockstream) created Hashcash, a distributed anti-spam mechanism.In 1998, computer engineer Wei Dai published two concepts for creating a b-money digital payment system:
Each member of the system has a copy of the system database with user funds balances (this idea found itself in Bitcoin).
Distributed base, but not everyone has a copy. To maintain the integrity of participants, deposits, fines, and incentives are provided. This was later implemented in the Proof-of-Stake consensus algorithm.
In April 2001,Bram Cohen developed the BitTorrent protocol and application.In 2002,Paul Syverson, Roger Dingledine and Nick Mathewson presented the alpha version of the anonymity network named TOR Project.In 2004, cypherpunk Hal Finney created the Reusable Proof of Work (RPoW) algorithm. It was based on Adam Back's Hashcash but its drawback was centralization.In 2005, cryptographer Nick Szabo, who developed the concept of smart contracts in the 1990s, announced the creation of Bit Gold — a digital collectible and investment item.In October 2008, legendary Satoshi Nakamoto created themanifesto“Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System”, which refers to the works of the cypherpunk classics Adam Back and Wei Dai.In 2011,Ross William Ulbricht aka Dread Pirate Roberts created the Silk Road, the first major market for illegal goods and services on the darknet.In 2016,Julian Assange released the book "Cypherpunks: Freedom and the future of the Internet."At the beginning of 2018,Pavel Durov, the creator of Telegram, announced the launch of the TON multi-blockchain platform and mentioned his plans to launch TON ICO.In 2019, the Tor Project introduced an open anti-censorship group.
Plenty of services, products, and technologies were inspired by cypherpunk: Cryptocurrencies, HD (Hierarchical Deterministic) crypto wallets, Coin Mixers, ECDHM addresses, Privacy Coins. The ideas of distribution and anonymity were also implemented in the torrents and VPN. You can see the embodiment of cybersecurity ideas in the electronic signatures and protected messengers (Telegram, Signal, and many others).Why there were so many talks about cypherpunk this spring?In April 2020, Reddit users suggested that the letter from the famous cypherpunks mailing dated September 19, 1999, was written by Satoshi Nakamoto himself (or someone close to him). This letter is about the functioning of ecash. Anonymous (supposed Satoshi) talks about the "public double-spending database" and Wei Dai's b-money as a possible foundation for ecash.In addition, researchers of the mystery "Who is Satoshi Nakamoto?" periodically make some noise and discover the next "secret" about one or another legendary cypherpunks. So, in May 2020, Adam Back wrote in response to videos and new hype discussions that, despite some coincidences, he is not Satoshi.Other heroes of the scene are not idle too: in April 2020, David Chaum received $9.7 million during the presale of the confidential coin xx, created to encourage venture investors.
As you can see from the Satoshi Nakamoto's mentions and from the stories of DigiCash, Hashcash, RPoW, Bit Gold, the movement of cypherpunk influenced a lot the emergence of cryptocurrencies. As governments and corporations restrict freedom and interfere with confidentiality, cypherpunk ideas will periodically rise in popularity. And this confrontation will not end in the coming decades.
50 Bitcoins that have been lying motionless since 2009 have been awakened. Coins were received as a reward for the block on February 9, when the first cryptocurrency network was only a month old. It is believed that these Bitcoins may belong to Satoshi Nakamoto, since at that time only 3-4 people were mining.
Bitcoin whales withdrew 17,320 BTC ($ 169.4 million) from the largest cryptocurrency exchanges in just a few hours. The purpose of all these transactions is unknown, neither are the identities of the whales.
Bitcoin transaction fees increased by 1250% from April 11th to May 14th. A large portion of the increase came in the days preceding and following the Bitcoin halving.
Joan Rowling, the author of Harry Potter books, wondered what Bitcoin is and how it works. Elon Musk, Vitalik Buterin, and hundreds of other Twitter users came to the rescue. Turned out Rowling has only ‘been trolling Bitcoin in the hope of boosting her significant Ethereum holdings.‘ In case you ever wanted to know, Elon Musk owns only 0,25 BTC. And that's it.
An unplanned fork occurred on the Ethereum 2.0 test network. Afri Shoedon, the lead developer of the ETH 2.0 multi-client test network, Schlesi, reported chain sharing as a result of a breach of consensus among customers.
Russia is not yet ready to accept cryptocurrencies. New bills provide for the introduction of administrative and criminal liability for violation of the rules for working with digital currencies. The State Duma wants to introduce criminal liability for crypto transactions.
The Iranian parliament has proposed that cryptocurrencies be included in the current “currency smuggling” legislation, and cryptocurrency exchanges will be required to obtain a license from the Central Bank of Iran to operate in the country, as well as meet the requirements for exchanging foreign currencies.
Intruders created a fake account of Sergey Brin (Google Founder) on YouTube and promised 5000 BTC distribution on his behalf. At a certain moment, over 100 thousand people watched the live broadcast. The organizers suggested transferring from 0.1 to 25 BTC in Bitcoins to their account in order to get twice as much. The video and channel are currently unavailable.
The first transaction of the year was made from the wallet that stored the Bitcoins stolen from the Bitfinex exchange in 2016. Unknown persons transferred 28.39124 BTC ($258k) to an anonymous address, and 2.275952 BTC ($20.6k) were sent to another wallet as part of the same transaction.
Robert Kiyosaki, “Rich Dad Poor Dad” author, says $75,000 Bitcoin possible as the economy is “dying”.
John McAfee has been accused of having copied the whitepaper of his Ghost Coin from other similar projects.
Kraken exchange creates new jobs. The wives, husbands, mothers, children, and roommates of the current employees were hired thanks to a questionnaire sent to them by the company.
Top-60 bitcoin/crypto quotes of the last decade, because reading them makes you feel good, and it feels good to feel good. Also one trading tip
First, number one trading tip for the next decade (in my opinion): XXA/XLM trading pair, price is 5.20 XLM (0.3588 USD). Ixinium XXA is so undervalued right now. Target profit +300% for this year. Backet by precious metals. Precious metals 100% insured by Lloyd's of London. Target price levels for this year because of precious metals base value: 12.0 XLM (0.83 USD, +130.6%) 18.8 XLM (1.30 USD, +261.5%) 23.2 XLM (1.60 USD, +345.9%) Price up since Coinmarketcap listing 7 days ago: 47.26% XXA/XLM trading pair on Stellarport and StellarX exchanges with zero trading fee. It's not too late to become an Ixinium whale :) My favorite bitcoin/crypto quotes, last ten years:
Came into Bitcoin for the short-term dollar gains. Stayed in Bitcoin for the long-term bitcoin gains.
Fiat addicts you to spending. Bitcoin addicts you to saving.
There are 1,900x more dollars in existence today than there was less than a hundred years ago. Bitcoin has no top because fiat has no bottom.
Most investors would be better off if they lost the password to their account and couldn’t log in for a few years.
How I learned to stop worrying and love the bear market: Value your wealth in bitcoin not fiat.
If I had a Bitcoin for every time someone asked me if I know who Satoshi is... I'd be Satoshi.
Every second bitcoin stays out of the spotlight, is another second we get to build unopposed. We can't take this time for granted.
You can't be excited about Bitcoin and fear the bear market. It's like being excited for Christmas but fearing winter. The bear market is a natural part of Bitcoin's mass adoption.
Crypto is the only money that works on the internet. But it's also the only money that works in space. It's really expensive to bring gold bars to Mars.
The fact that your normie friends don't think Bitcoin is cool yet is the reason why there is still massive upside potential.
Feel free to print (fiat money) as much as you need, as I am already all in crypto.
Satoshi walks in to a bar. Nobody knows.
Fiat supply: unlimited. Gold supply: unknown. Bitcoin supply: 21 million.
Most people still don’t know anything about Bitcoin except its price. But they don’t know why Bitcoin has a price in the first place. Hence the skepticism. When you don’t know why something has a price, it is impossible to understand how much it can really be worth.
There can never be more than 17 million people who own 1 full bitcoin. But in practice, there will be far fewer.
Internet allowed you to never have to go to the library. Bitcoin will allow you to never have to go to the bank.
Google's CEO is Indian
Nokia's CEO is Indian Adobe's CEO is Indian Amazon's BOD is Indian MasterCard's CEO is Indian Microsoft's CEO is Indian Pepsico's CEO was Indian indra nooyi Nasa has 58% Indian employees Do something towards $Btc bans in India! ENOUGH IS ENOUGH.
When you trade trends, you can be the last person to join the trend & first person to leave the trend & you can still outperform everyone else in long term simply because others will keep guessing the tops & bottoms while you will keep riding confirmed trends.
You don't need to fomo into positions, if you accumulate early.
If your "financial advisor" doesn't advise you to buy crypto, fire 'em.
Bitcoin doesn't care about your feelings. It also doesn't care about your gender, ethnicity, sexual preference or religion. Bitcoin just is.
Want to prove to an investor that your crypto product is needed? Get people to use it. It is really hard to argue with usage.
Is it possible to be a BTC maximalist and be Vegan? Asking for a friend..
If you think that bitcoin is not going to the mainstream, think again.
Most people don’t know what money is. This is why Bitcoin is still underrated. First, learn what money is. Then, you will be able to leverage the massive opportunity that is Bitcoin.
If you think the people in charge know exactly what they’re doing, do nothing & continue on with your life. If you think those in charge may NOT actually be as smart as they want us to think, buy a little Bitcoin. The status quo is a bet on humans, but Bitcoin is a bet on math.
Bitcoin is only risky to those who don’t understand it.
Short term volatility doesn’t phase long term investors.
If you manage your risk, your profits will take care of itself. If you don't, your parents will take care of you.
For every person in the world, there are only 0.00225764 bitcoins.
If you did your research, this bear market was expected. Bear or bull market, it’s business as usual for true Bitcoiners.
For Bitcoin to succeed, the whole world doesn't need to understand its value proposition. Those who do will profit from its monetization. Those who don't will naturally adopt this better money.
Economic reality imposes itself onto the world whether you're aware of it or not.
This is not financial advice. This is life advice. Buy Bitcoin.
If Banks & Fiat are horse carriages, then Bitcoin isn't merely cars, it's fucking teleportation.
How Bitcoin enables global prosperity:
Bitcoin makes you future-oriented Bitcoin makes delaying gratification easier Bitcoin makes saving & capital accumulation easier Bitcoin makes investing easier Bitcoin makes global trade easier Bitcoin makes advancing civilization easier
Bitcoin is the ultimate marshmallow experiment. People who are able to hodl for longer will tend to have better life outcomes.
Other than your human time, Bitcoin is the scarcest thing on earth. Human time will become more abundant as life expectancy increases. Bitcoin, however, will only become scarcer.
The energy cost of Bitcoin mining will pale in comparison to the improvements in the world’s productivity and prosperity that are enabled by Bitcoin.
Pros of bear market:
-You can buy more Bitcoin -Devs more productive than ever -Weak hands driven out+hodler base strengthened -Focus on fundamentals, not short-term price -Overvalued shitcoins deflated -Critical Infrastructure being built out, making next bull run even fiercer
The more productive we are during the bear market, the harder Bitcoin will pump in the next bull market. Ignore short-term price action. Focus on Bitcoin fundamentals.
Bitcoin bear market is the best time for buying, learning and staying miles ahead of the normies who will once again be late to the game and will buy the top.
Before you invest in Bitcoin, invest in educating yourself about Bitcoin. Understanding Bitcoin will make your conviction much stronger and enable you to maximize your gains.
There are 2 ways you can adopt Bitcoin:
Early on & willingly-> result: allows you to capture upside as Bitcoin grows & becomes widely used or
Much later & not having another choice-> result: failing to capture most upside from Bitcoin's monetization.
The choice is yours.
The overwhelming majority of highly intelligent people I talk to still have no idea why Bitcoin is valuable. We are extremely early. The ability to identify opportunity before others and take advantage of the information asymmetry is key.
Bitcoin will succeed with or without you. Don’t be left behind.
In the 90s people couldn’t imagine that the Internet would replace newspapers, TV, phone calls, shops & many other things. Today, people can't imagine Bitcoin becoming mass adopted money. Bitcoin will do to money what Internet did to information. And money is a way bigger market.
If every millionaire in the US wanted to have just 1 bitcoin they wouldn't be able to. There will always be fewer bitcoins than there are millionaires in the US (let alone the whole world). Ignore this at your own risk.
The corporations & institutions that stand to lose from Bitcoin adoption are made up of individuals who stand to benefit massively from Bitcoin adoption. Realizing that every group or entity is made up of self-motivated individuals is key to realizing why Bitcoin will succeed.
Bitcoin self-selects for people with:
* Low time preference * Long attention span * Commitment * Authenticity * Patience * Persistence * Ability to focus * Ability to go against the mainstream Bitcoin is a marathon, not a sprint.
If you don’t have a deep understanding of:
What money is
Functions of money
Money properties that fulfill its various functions
Then don’t you dare criticize Bitcoin.
Bitcoin doesn’t care:
- what color you are - what sex you are - what age you are - what your religion is - who your parents are - which university/school you went to - who you’re friends with - how expensive your lawyer is Bitcoin cannot discriminate.
You chase money every single day. You stress over money all your life. You worship money.
But you have no idea why money is valuable. Money controls your life because you have no understanding of what it is. Once you ask yourself “What is money?”, Bitcoin will make sense.
Satoshi Nakamoto deserves:
- Nobel Prize in Economics - Nobel Peace Prize - Nobel Prize in Physics But thankfully the last thing Satoshi needs is the validation of the establishment.
Bitcoin is doing better than corporations & altcoins though it never had:
- CEO - Marketing - Salaries - ICO - Partnerships - Headquarters - Customer support Bitcoin is an emergent superorganism. Members contribute according to their ability, driven by passion more than greed.
July 2011 - $31
- “Damn, I should've bought bitcoin earlier” Apr 2013 - $266 - “Damn, I should've bought bitcoin earlier” Nov 2013 - $1,242 - “Damn, I should've bought bitcoin earlier” Dec 2017 - $19,891 - “Damn, I should've bought bitcoin earlier” 2022-2023 - ... - “Damn..”
Successful crypto trading boils down to correctly predicting how the whales will torture the normies next.
Bitcoin doesn’t wait for anyone. It’s up to you if you want to learn this the hard way.
Percentage of world using the Internet in 1995 = 0.4%
Percentage of world using the Internet in 2019 = 58.8% Bitcoin is to money what the Internet is to information. Percentage of world using Bitcoin in 2019 = 0.4% If you thought you are late to Bitcoin, think again.
I didn't choose the dollar.
I didn't choose the euro. I didn't choose the pound. I didn't choose the yen. I didn't choose the ruble. I didn't choose fractional reserve banking. I didn't choose central banks. I didn't choose quantitative easing. I choose Bitcoin.
Go to location
Social Security #
Proof of address
Unreadable legal docs
Wait a week for your funds
Which one will the next generation choose? Many of these wisdom quotes are from the author of the new book called “This ₿ook Will Save You Time”, and he's donating all of the proceeds from the book sales to a Bitcoin developer.
As part of a recent tweet calling on all novelists to message her with their questions on Bitcoin (BTC), CoinDesk journalist Leigh Cuen publicized a tweeted response from none other than beloved Harry Potter author J. K. Rowling. "I don’t understand Bitcoin," Rowling said, adding, "Please explain it to me." Dear J. K. Rowling: The first thing you need to understand is that Bitcoin is magic. It allows you to exchange money with anyone in the world instantly, cheaply and securely, without the need for any centralized, Goblin-based banking authority. Chapter 1: The White Paper From No One Bitcoin was invented by a mysterious computer programmer named Satoshi Nakamoto — almost assuredly a pseudonym. In Bitcoin’s 10 year history, the identity of Bitcoin’s creator has never been unearthed. We can refer to him here as He-Who-Has-Not-Been-Named. Chapter 2: The Self-Writing Book Ownership of each coin is confirmed and recorded instantly in a digital ledger called a Blockchain — similar to how the Quill of Acceptance records the name of each new potential Hogwarts student in the Book of Admittance. Except instead of recording magical births, we’re recording who does and doesn’t own a particular coin. This ledger is public and allows anyone to see who has owned a given coin throughout its history. A good visual representation for this process is a checkout card in a library book. Contrasting with Gringotts (as well as with muggle banks), Bitcoin has no set hours of operation. You can send your Bitcoin anywhere in the world — day or night, 365 days per year — and the recipient will receive it in a matter of seconds. It's also pretty darn secure, no dragons necessary. Chapter 3: The Unconjurable Coin Following Gamp’s Law of Elemental Transfiguration, new money cannot be conjured from nothing. Bitcoin respects this particular law far better than any government-issued currency. Only 21 million coins will ever exist on the Bitcoin network, and nothing can ever change that. By capping the number of Bitcoin to this finite amount, scarcity bestows each coin with a certain level of intrinsic value. It also protects Bitcoin from the woes of extreme hyperinflation seen in government-issued currencies. Chapter 4: The Magical Mine Bitcoin transactions must be validated in order for them to be added to the Blockchain ledger. Anyone in the world is able to contribute to this mining process using computer processing power. The first miner to confirm each new batch of transactions, called a block, receives a fresh issuance of brand new, never-before-spent Bitcoin as a reward. As a whole, this process would make a fine candidate for the Ludicrous Patents Office. Chapter 5: The Secret Key Users store their Bitcoin in a digital account called a wallet. Each wallet is protected by a unique private key, sometimes recorded as a series of human-readable words. Similar to a passcode or spell, knowing the right combination of words allows anyone to access the coins stored in a particular wallet. On the other hand, losing this key means that its corresponding wallet can never be opened again. That is why it is important to keep your wallet's private key a secret, while also maintaining adequate backups in as many locations as possible. Seven is a great number — and you don't even have to kill anyone to make them. Unlike sending bank wires, checks or other online payments, sending and receiving Bitcoin does not directly expose any party's private information. To receive Bitcoin, one simply shares their public wallet address — a string of letters and numbers — which, in and of itself, poses no hacking risk. Kind of like an email, but for money. Chapter 6: The Faceless Exchange Bitcoin can be bought and sold using any number of online marketplaces called exchanges. Coins can be traded for nearly any global currency — save, perhaps, Galleons — at constantly fluctuating prices. They can also be traded for other Blockchain-based currencies. You also do not need to buy a whole coin. You can buy any portion of a Bitcoin, divisible up to 100,000,000 individual pieces. For example, 0.01 BTC is currently valued at roughly $92 (or 72 Great BP). Chapter 7: Unfogging the Future Bitcoin's 10-year history has seen our community transfigured in many different ways. Though the technology began as a way to allow people to securely send money online without the oversight of banks or governments, it is now so much more. Blockchain is being used to create self-executing applications that, in some ways, think for themselves. Developers are utilizing the technology to craft unhackable voting platforms, impossibly huge file storage methods, provably fair betting systems (sure to stoke even Ludo Bagman's ire), and even authenticate and distribute art across every medium to individuals around the world. We can't predict all the magical ways Bitcoin's underlying technology will impact our lives in the future. Divination is, after all, a woolly discipline. What we can say for certain is that Blockchain's strength is in redistributing power. It removes the need for governing bodies and returns the power to share knowledge, riches and even the control of individual privacy back to the people.
Dear Groestlers, it goes without saying that 2020 has been a difficult time for millions of people worldwide. The groestlcoin team would like to take this opportunity to wish everyone our best to everyone coping with the direct and indirect effects of COVID-19. Let it bring out the best in us all and show that collectively, we can conquer anything. The centralised banks and our national governments are facing unprecedented times with interest rates worldwide dropping to record lows in places. Rest assured that this can only strengthen the fundamentals of all decentralised cryptocurrencies and the vision that was seeded with Satoshi's Bitcoin whitepaper over 10 years ago. Despite everything that has been thrown at us this year, the show must go on and the team will still progress and advance to continue the momentum that we have developed over the past 6 years. In addition to this, we'd like to remind you all that this is Groestlcoin's 6th Birthday release! In terms of price there have been some crazy highs and lows over the years (with highs of around $2.60 and lows of $0.000077!), but in terms of value– Groestlcoin just keeps getting more valuable! In these uncertain times, one thing remains clear – Groestlcoin will keep going and keep innovating regardless. On with what has been worked on and completed over the past few months.
UPDATED - Groestlcoin Core 2.18.2
This is a major release of Groestlcoin Core with many protocol level improvements and code optimizations, featuring the technical equivalent of Bitcoin v0.18.2 but with Groestlcoin-specific patches. On a general level, most of what is new is a new 'Groestlcoin-wallet' tool which is now distributed alongside Groestlcoin Core's other executables. NOTE: The 'Account' API has been removed from this version which was typically used in some tip bots. Please ensure you check the release notes from 2.17.2 for details on replacing this functionality.
Builds are now done through Gitian
Calls to getblocktemplate will fail if the segwit rule is not specified. Calling getblocktemplate without segwit specified is almost certainly a misconfiguration since doing so results in lower rewards for the miner. Failed calls will produce an error message describing how to enable the segwit rule.
A warning is printed if an unrecognized section name is used in the configuration file. Recognized sections are [test], [main], and [regtest].
Four new options are available for configuring the maximum number of messages that ZMQ will queue in memory (the "high water mark") before dropping additional messages. The default value is 1,000, the same as was used for previous releases.
The rpcallowip option can no longer be used to automatically listen on all network interfaces. Instead, the rpcbind parameter must be used to specify the IP addresses to listen on. Listening for RPC commands over a public network connection is insecure and should be disabled, so a warning is now printed if a user selects such a configuration. If you need to expose RPC in order to use a tool like Docker, ensure you only bind RPC to your localhost, e.g. docker run [...] -p 127.0.0.1:1441:1441 (this is an extra :1441 over the normal Docker port specification).
The rpcpassword option now causes a startup error if the password set in the configuration file contains a hash character (#), as it's ambiguous whether the hash character is meant for the password or as a comment.
The whitelistforcerelay option is used to relay transactions from whitelisted peers even when not accepted to the mempool. This option now defaults to being off, so that changes in policy and disconnect/ban behavior will not cause a node that is whitelisting another to be dropped by peers.
A new short about the JSON-RPC interface describes cases where the results of anRPC might contain inconsistencies between data sourced from differentsubsystems, such as wallet state and mempool state.
A new document introduces Groestlcoin Core's BIP174 interface, which is used to allow multiple programs to collaboratively work to create, sign, and broadcast new transactions. This is useful for offline (cold storage) wallets, multisig wallets, coinjoin implementations, and many other cases where two or more programs need to interact to generate a complete transaction.
The output script descriptor (https://github.com/groestlcoin/groestlcoin/blob/mastedoc/descriptors.md) documentation has been updated with information about new features in this still-developing language for describing the output scripts that a wallet or other program wants to receive notifications for, such as which addresses it wants to know received payments. The language is currently used in multiple new and updated RPCs described in these release notes and is expected to be adapted to other RPCs and to the underlying wallet structure.
A new --disable-bip70 option may be passed to ./configure to prevent Groestlcoin-Qt from being built with support for the BIP70 payment protocol or from linking libssl. As the payment protocol has exposed Groestlcoin Core to libssl vulnerabilities in the past, builders who don't need BIP70 support are encouraged to use this option to reduce their exposure to future vulnerabilities.
The minimum required version of Qt (when building the GUI) has been increased from 5.2 to 5.5.1 (the depends system provides 5.9.7)
getnodeaddresses returns peer addresses known to this node. It may be used to find nodes to connect to without using a DNS seeder.
listwalletdir returns a list of wallets in the wallet directory (either the default wallet directory or the directory configured bythe -walletdir parameter).
getrpcinfo returns runtime details of the RPC server. Currently, it returns an array of the currently active commands and how long they've been running.
deriveaddresses returns one or more addresses corresponding to an output descriptor.
getdescriptorinfo accepts a descriptor and returns information aboutit, including its computed checksum.
joinpsbts merges multiple distinct PSBTs into a single PSBT. The multiple PSBTs must have different inputs. The resulting PSBT will contain every input and output from all the PSBTs. Any signatures provided in any of the PSBTs will be dropped.
analyzepsbt examines a PSBT and provides information about what the PSBT contains and the next steps that need to be taken in order to complete the transaction. For each input of a PSBT, analyze psbt provides information about what information is missing for that input, including whether a UTXO needs to be provided, what pubkeys still need to be provided, which scripts need to be provided, and what signatures are still needed. Every input will also list which role is needed to complete that input, and analyzepsbt will also list the next role in general needed to complete the PSBT. analyzepsbt will also provide the estimated fee rate and estimated virtual size of the completed transaction if it has enough information to do so.
utxoupdatepsbt searches the set of Unspent Transaction Outputs (UTXOs) to find the outputs being spent by the partial transaction. PSBTs need to have the UTXOs being spent to be provided because the signing algorithm requires information from the UTXO being spent. For segwit inputs, only the UTXO itself is necessary. For non-segwit outputs, the entire previous transaction is needed so that signers can be sure that they are signing the correct thing. Unfortunately, because the UTXO set only contains UTXOs and not full transactions, utxoupdatepsbt will only add the UTXO for segwit inputs.
getpeerinfo now returns an additional minfeefilter field set to the peer's BIP133 fee filter. You can use this to detect that you have peers that are willing to accept transactions below the default minimum relay fee.
The mempool RPCs, such as getrawmempool with verbose=true, now return an additional "bip125-replaceable" value indicating whether thetransaction (or its unconfirmed ancestors) opts-in to asking nodes and miners to replace it with a higher-feerate transaction spending any of the same inputs.
settxfee previously silently ignored attempts to set the fee below the allowed minimums. It now prints a warning. The special value of"0" may still be used to request the minimum value.
getaddressinfo now provides an ischange field indicating whether the wallet used the address in a change output.
importmulti has been updated to support P2WSH, P2WPKH, P2SH-P2WPKH, and P2SH-P2WSH. Requests for P2WSH and P2SH-P2WSH accept an additional witnessscript parameter.
importmulti now returns an additional warnings field for each request with an array of strings explaining when fields are being ignored or are inconsistent, if there are any.
getaddressinfo now returns an additional solvable Boolean field when Groestlcoin Core knows enough about the address's scriptPubKey, optional redeemScript, and optional witnessScript for the wallet to be able to generate an unsigned input spending funds sent to that address.
The getaddressinfo, listunspent, and scantxoutset RPCs now return an additional desc field that contains an output descriptor containing all key paths and signing information for the address (except for the private key). The desc field is only returned for getaddressinfo and listunspent when the address is solvable.
importprivkey will preserve previously-set labels for addresses or public keys corresponding to the private key being imported. For example, if you imported a watch-only address with the label "coldwallet" in earlier releases of Groestlcoin Core, subsequently importing the private key would default to resetting the address's label to the default empty-string label (""). In this release, the previous label of "cold wallet" will be retained. If you optionally specify any label besides the default when calling importprivkey, the new label will be applied to the address.
getmininginfo now omits currentblockweight and currentblocktx when a block was never assembled via RPC on this node.
The getrawtransaction RPC & REST endpoints no longer check the unspent UTXO set for a transaction. The remaining behaviors are as follows:
If a blockhash is provided, check the corresponding block.
If no blockhash is provided, check the mempool.
If no blockhash is provided but txindex is enabled, also check txindex.
unloadwallet is now synchronous, meaning it will not return until the wallet is fully unloaded.
importmulti now supports importing of addresses from descriptors. A desc parameter can be provided instead of the "scriptPubKey" in are quest, as well as an optional range for ranged descriptors to specify the start and end of the range to import. Descriptors with key origin information imported through importmulti will have their key origin information stored in the wallet for use with creating PSBTs.
listunspent has been modified so that it also returns witnessScript, the witness script in the case of a P2WSH orP2SH-P2WSH output.
createwallet now has an optional blank argument that can be used to create a blank wallet. Blank wallets do not have any keys or HDseed. They cannot be opened in software older than 2.18.2. Once a blank wallet has a HD seed set (by using sethdseed) or private keys, scripts, addresses, and other watch only things have been imported, the wallet is no longer blank and can be opened in 2.17.2. Encrypting a blank wallet will also set a HD seed for it.
signrawtransaction is removed after being deprecated and hidden behind a special configuration option in version 2.17.2.
The 'account' API is removed after being deprecated in v2.17.2 The 'label' API was introduced in v2.17.2 as a replacement for accounts. See the release notes from v2.17.2 for a full description of the changes from the 'account' API to the 'label' API.
addwitnessaddress is removed after being deprecated in version 2.16.0.
generate is deprecated and will be fully removed in a subsequent major version. This RPC is only used for testing, but its implementation reached across multiple subsystems (wallet and mining), so it is being deprecated to simplify the wallet-node interface. Projects that are using generate for testing purposes should transition to using the generatetoaddress RPC, which does not require or use the wallet component. Calling generatetoaddress with an address returned by the getnewaddress RPC gives the same functionality as the old generate RPC. To continue using generate in this version, restart groestlcoind with the -deprecatedrpc=generate configuration option.
Be reminded that parts of the validateaddress command have been deprecated and moved to getaddressinfo. The following deprecated fields have moved to getaddressinfo: ismine, iswatchonly,script, hex, pubkeys, sigsrequired, pubkey, embedded,iscompressed, label, timestamp, hdkeypath, hdmasterkeyid.
The addresses field has been removed from the validateaddressand getaddressinfo RPC methods. This field was confusing since it referred to public keys using their P2PKH address. Clients should use the embedded.address field for P2SH or P2WSH wrapped addresses, and pubkeys for inspecting multisig participants.
A new /rest/blockhashbyheight/ endpoint is added for fetching the hash of the block in the current best blockchain based on its height (how many blocks it is after the Genesis Block).
A new Window menu is added alongside the existing File, Settings, and Help menus. Several items from the other menus that opened new windows have been moved to this new Window menu.
In the Send tab, the checkbox for "pay only the required fee" has been removed. Instead, the user can simply decrease the value in the Custom Fee rate field all the way down to the node's configured minimumrelay fee.
In the Overview tab, the watch-only balance will be the only balance shown if the wallet was created using the createwallet RPC and thedisable_private_keys parameter was set to true.
The launch-on-startup option is no longer available on macOS if compiled with macosx min version greater than 10.11 (useCXXFLAGS="-mmacosx-version-min=10.11" CFLAGS="-mmacosx-version-min=10.11" for setting the deployment sdkversion)
A new groestlcoin-wallet tool is now distributed alongside Groestlcoin Core's other executables. Without needing to use any RPCs, this tool can currently create a new wallet file or display some basic information about an existing wallet, such as whether the wallet is encrypted, whether it uses an HD seed, how many transactions it contains, and how many address book entries it has.
Since version 2.16.0, Groestlcoin Core's built-in wallet has defaulted to generating P2SH-wrapped segwit addresses when users want to receive payments. These addresses are backwards compatible with all widely used software. Starting with Groestlcoin Core 2.20.1 (expected about a year after 2.18.2), Groestlcoin Core will default to native segwitaddresses (bech32) that provide additional fee savings and other benefits. Currently, many wallets and services already support sending to bech32 addresses, and if the Groestlcoin Core project sees enough additional adoption, it will instead default to bech32 receiving addresses in Groestlcoin Core 2.19.1. P2SH-wrapped segwit addresses will continue to be provided if the user requests them in the GUI or by RPC, and anyone who doesn't want the update will be able to configure their default address type. (Similarly, pioneering users who want to change their default now may set the addresstype=bech32 configuration option in any Groestlcoin Core release from 2.16.0 up.)
BIP 61 reject messages are now deprecated. Reject messages have no use case on the P2P network and are only logged for debugging by most network nodes. Furthermore, they increase bandwidth and can be harmful for privacy and security. It has been possible to disable BIP 61 messages since v2.17.2 with the -enablebip61=0 option. BIP 61 messages will be disabled by default in a future version, before being removed entirely.
The submitblock RPC previously returned the reason a rejected block was invalid the first time it processed that block but returned a generic "duplicate" rejection message on subsequent occasions it processed the same block. It now always returns the fundamental reason for rejecting an invalid block and only returns "duplicate" for valid blocks it has already accepted.
A new submitheader RPC allows submitting block headers independently from their block. This is likely only useful for testing.
The signrawtransactionwithkey and signrawtransactionwithwallet RPCs have been modified so that they also optionally accept a witnessScript, the witness script in the case of a P2WSH orP2SH-P2WSH output. This is compatible with the change to listunspent.
For the walletprocesspsbt and walletcreatefundedpsbt RPCs, if thebip32derivs parameter is set to true but the key metadata for a public key has not been updated yet, then that key will have a derivation path as if it were just an independent key (i.e. no derivation path and its master fingerprint is itself).
The -usehd configuration option was removed in version 2.16.0 From that version onwards, all new wallets created are hierarchical deterministic wallets. This release makes specifying -usehd an invalid configuration option.
This release allows peers that your node automatically disconnected for misbehaviour (e.g. sending invalid data) to reconnect to your node if you have unused incoming connection slots. If your slots fill up, a misbehaving node will be disconnected to make room for nodes without a history of problems (unless the misbehaving node helps your node in some other way, such as by connecting to a part of the Internet from which you don't have many other peers). Previously, Groestlcoin Core banned the IP addresses of misbehaving peers for a period (default of 1 day); this was easily circumvented by attackers with multiple IP addresses. If you manually ban a peer, such as by using the setban RPC, all connections from that peer will still be rejected.
The key metadata will need to be upgraded the first time that the HDseed is available. For unencrypted wallets this will occur on wallet loading. For encrypted wallets this will occur the first time the wallet is unlocked.
Newly encrypted wallets will no longer require restarting the software. Instead such wallets will be completely unloaded and reloaded to achieve the same effect.
A sub-project of Bitcoin Core now provides Hardware Wallet Interaction (HWI) scripts that allow command-line users to use several popular hardware key management devices with Groestlcoin Core. See their project page for details.
This release changes the Random Number Generator (RNG) used from OpenSSL to Groestlcoin Core's own implementation, although entropy gathered by Groestlcoin Core is fed out to OpenSSL and then read back in when the program needs strong randomness. This moves Groestlcoin Core a little closer to no longer needing to depend on OpenSSL, a dependency that has caused security issues in the past. The new implementation gathers entropy from multiple sources, including from hardware supporting the rdseed CPU instruction.
On macOS, Groestlcoin Core now opts out of application CPU throttling ("app nap") during initial blockchain download, when catching up from over 100 blocks behind the current chain tip, or when reindexing chain data. This helps prevent these operations from taking an excessively long time because the operating system is attempting to conserve power.
How to Upgrade?
Windows If you are running an older version, shut it down. Wait until it has completely shut down (which might take a few minutes for older versions), then run the installer. OSX If you are running an older version, shut it down. Wait until it has completely shut down (which might take a few minutes for older versions), run the dmg and drag Groestlcoin Core to Applications. Ubuntu http://groestlcoin.org/forum/index.php?topic=441.0
ALL NEW - Groestlcoin Moonshine iOS/Android Wallet
Built with React Native, Moonshine utilizes Electrum-GRS's JSON-RPC methods to interact with the Groestlcoin network. GRS Moonshine's intended use is as a hot wallet. Meaning, your keys are only as safe as the device you install this wallet on. As with any hot wallet, please ensure that you keep only a small, responsible amount of Groestlcoin on it at any given time.
Groestlcoin Mainnet & Testnet supported
Multiple wallet support
Electrum - Support for both random and custom peers
Biometric + Pin authentication
Custom fee selection
Import mnemonic phrases via manual entry or scanning
BIP39 Passphrase functionality
Support for Segwit-compatible & legacy addresses in settings
Support individual private key sweeping
UTXO blacklisting - Accessible via the Transaction Detail view, this allows users to blacklist any utxo that they do not wish to include in their list of available utxo's when sending transactions. Blacklisting a utxo excludes its amount from the wallet's total balance.
Ability to Sign & Verify Messages
Support BitID for password-free authentication
Coin Control - This can be accessed from the Send Transaction view and basically allows users to select from a list of available UTXO's to include in their transaction.
HODL GRS connects directly to the Groestlcoin network using SPV mode and doesn't rely on servers that can be hacked or disabled. HODL GRS utilizes AES hardware encryption, app sandboxing, and the latest security features to protect users from malware, browser security holes, and even physical theft. Private keys are stored only in the secure enclave of the user's phone, inaccessible to anyone other than the user. Simplicity and ease-of-use is the core design principle of HODL GRS. A simple recovery phrase (which we call a Backup Recovery Key) is all that is needed to restore the user's wallet if they ever lose or replace their device. HODL GRS is deterministic, which means the user's balance and transaction history can be recovered just from the backup recovery key.
Simplified payment verification for fast mobile performance
Groestlcoin Seed Savior is a tool for recovering BIP39 seed phrases. This tool is meant to help users with recovering a slightly incorrect Groestlcoin mnemonic phrase (AKA backup or seed). You can enter an existing BIP39 mnemonic and get derived addresses in various formats. To find out if one of the suggested addresses is the right one, you can click on the suggested address to check the address' transaction history on a block explorer.
If a word is wrong, the tool will try to suggest the closest option.
If a word is missing or unknown, please type "?" instead and the tool will find all relevant options.
NOTE: NVidia GPU or any CPU only. AMD graphics cards will not work with this address generator. VanitySearch is a command-line Segwit-capable vanity Groestlcoin address generator. Add unique flair when you tell people to send Groestlcoin. Alternatively, VanitySearch can be used to generate random addresses offline. If you're tired of the random, cryptic addresses generated by regular groestlcoin clients, then VanitySearch is the right choice for you to create a more personalized address. VanitySearch is a groestlcoin address prefix finder. If you want to generate safe private keys, use the -s option to enter your passphrase which will be used for generating a base key as for BIP38 standard (VanitySearch.exe -s "My PassPhrase" FXPref). You can also use VanitySearch.exe -ps "My PassPhrase" which will add a crypto secure seed to your passphrase. VanitySearch may not compute a good grid size for your GPU, so try different values using -g option in order to get the best performances. If you want to use GPUs and CPUs together, you may have best performances by keeping one CPU core for handling GPU(s)/CPU exchanges (use -t option to set the number of CPU threads).
Fixed size arithmetic
Fast Modular Inversion (Delayed Right Shift 62 bits)
SecpK1 Fast modular multiplication (2 steps folding 512bits to 256bits using 64 bits digits)
Use some properties of elliptic curve to generate more keys
SSE Secure Hash Algorithm SHA256 and RIPEMD160 (CPU)
Groestlcoin EasyVanity 2020 is a windows app built from the ground-up and makes it easier than ever before to create your very own bespoke bech32 address(es) when whilst not connected to the internet. If you're tired of the random, cryptic bech32 addresses generated by regular Groestlcoin clients, then Groestlcoin EasyVanity2020 is the right choice for you to create a more personalised bech32 address. This 2020 version uses the new VanitySearch to generate not only legacy addresses (F prefix) but also Bech32 addresses (grs1 prefix).
Ability to continue finding keys after first one is found
Includes warning on start-up if connected to the internet
Ability to output keys to a text file (And shows button to open that directory)
Show and hide the private key with a simple toggle switch
Show full output of commands
Ability to choose between Processor (CPU) and Graphics Card (GPU) ( NVidia ONLY! )
Features both a Light and Dark Material Design-Style Themes
Free software - MIT. Anyone can audit the code.
Written in C# - The code is short, and easy to review.
Groestlcoin WPF is an alternative full node client with optional lightweight 'thin-client' mode based on WPF. Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) is one of Microsoft's latest approaches to a GUI framework, used with the .NET framework. Its main advantages over the original Groestlcoin client include support for exporting blockchain.dat and including a lite wallet mode. This wallet was previously deprecated but has been brought back to life with modern standards.
Works via TOR or SOCKS5 proxy
Can use bootstrap.dat format as blockchain database
Import/Export blockchain to/from bootstrap.dat
Import wallet.dat from Groestlcoin-qt wallet
Export wallet to wallet.dat
Use both groestlcoin-wpf and groestlcoin-qt with the same addresses in parallel. When you send money from one program, the transaction will automatically be visible on the other wallet.
Rescan blockchain with a simple mouse click
Works as a full node and listens to port 1331 (listening port can be changed)
Fast Block verifying, parallel processing on multi-core CPUs
Mine Groestlcoins with your CPU by a simple mouse click
All private keys are kept encrypted on your local machine (or on a USB stick)
Lite - Has a lightweight "thin client" mode which does not require a new user to download the entire Groestlcoin chain and store it
Free and decentralised - Open Source under GNU license
Fixed Import/Export to wallet.dat
Rescan wallet option
Change wallet password option
Address type and Change type options through *.conf file
Import from bootstrap.dat - It is a flat, binary file containing Groestlcoin blockchain data, from the genesis block through a recent height. All versions automatically validate and import the file "grs.bootstrap.dat" in the GRS directory. Grs.bootstrap.dat is compatible with Qt wallet. GroestlCoin-Qt can load from it.
In Full mode file %APPDATA%\Groestlcoin-WPF\GRS\GRS.bootstrap.dat is full blockchain in standard bootstrap.dat format and can be used with other clients.
Groestlcoin Electrum Personal Server aims to make using Electrum Groestlcoin wallet more secure and more private. It makes it easy to connect your Electrum-GRS wallet to your own full node. It is an implementation of the Electrum-grs server protocol which fulfils the specific need of using the Electrum-grs wallet backed by a full node, but without the heavyweight server backend, for a single user. It allows the user to benefit from all Groestlcoin Core's resource-saving features like pruning, blocks only and disabled txindex. All Electrum-GRS's feature-richness like hardware wallet integration, multi-signature wallets, offline signing, seed recovery phrases, coin control and so on can still be used, but connected only to the user's own full node. Full node wallets are important in Groestlcoin because they are a big part of what makes the system be trust-less. No longer do people have to trust a financial institution like a bank or PayPal, they can run software on their own computers. If Groestlcoin is digital gold, then a full node wallet is your own personal goldsmith who checks for you that received payments are genuine. Full node wallets are also important for privacy. Using Electrum-GRS under default configuration requires it to send (hashes of) all your Groestlcoin addresses to some server. That server can then easily spy on your transactions. Full node wallets like Groestlcoin Electrum Personal Server would download the entire blockchain and scan it for the user's own addresses, and therefore don't reveal to anyone else which Groestlcoin addresses they are interested in. Groestlcoin Electrum Personal Server can also broadcast transactions through Tor which improves privacy by resisting traffic analysis for broadcasted transactions which can link the IP address of the user to the transaction. If enabled this would happen transparently whenever the user simply clicks "Send" on a transaction in Electrum-grs wallet. Note: Currently Groestlcoin Electrum Personal Server can only accept one connection at a time.
Use your own node
Uses less CPU and RAM than ElectrumX
Used intermittently rather than needing to be always-on
Doesn't require an index of every Groestlcoin address ever used like on ElectrumX
UPDATED – Android Wallet 7.38.1 - Main Net + Test Net
The app allows you to send and receive Groestlcoin on your device using QR codes and URI links. When using this app, please back up your wallet and email them to yourself! This will save your wallet in a password protected file. Then your coins can be retrieved even if you lose your phone.
Add confidence messages, helping users to understand the confidence state of their payments.
Handle edge case when restoring via an external app.
Count devices with a memory class of 128 MB as low ram.
Introduce dark mode on Android 10 devices.
Reduce memory usage of PIN-protected wallets.
Tapping on the app's version will reveal a checksum of the APK that was installed.
Fix issue with confirmation of transactions that empty your wallet.
Groestlcoin Sentinel is a great solution for anyone who wants the convenience and utility of a hot wallet for receiving payments directly into their cold storage (or hardware wallets). Sentinel accepts XPUB's, YPUB'S, ZPUB's and individual Groestlcoin address. Once added you will be able to view balances, view transactions, and (in the case of XPUB's, YPUB's and ZPUB's) deterministically generate addresses for that wallet. Groestlcoin Sentinel is a fork of Groestlcoin Samourai Wallet with all spending and transaction building code removed.
You've probably been hearing a lot about Bitcoin recently and are wondering what's the big deal? Most of your questions should be answered by the resources below but if you have additional questions feel free to ask them in the comments. The following videos are a good starting point for understanding how bitcoin works and a little about its long term potential:
Limited Supply - There will only ever be 21,000,000 bitcoins created and they are issued in a predictable fashion, you can view the inflation schedule here. Once they are all issued Bitcoin will be truly deflationary. The halving countdown can be found here.
Open source - Bitcoin code is fully auditable. You can read the source code yourself here.
Accountable - The public ledger is transparent, all transactions are seen by everyone.
Decentralized - Bitcoin is globally distributed across thousands of nodes with no single point of failure and as such can't be shut down similar to how Bittorrent works.
Censorship resistant - No one can prevent you from interacting with the bitcoin network and no one can censor, alter or block transactions that they disagree with, see Operation Chokepoint.
Push system - There are no chargebacks in bitcoin because only the person who owns the address where the bitcoins reside has the authority to move them.
Low fee - Transactions fees can vary between a few cents and a few dollars depending on network demand and how much priority you wish to assign to the transaction. Most wallets calculate the fee automatically but you can view current fees here.
Borderless - No country can stop it from going in/out, even in areas currently unserved by traditional banking as the ledger is globally distributed.
Some excellent writing on Bitcoin's value proposition and future can be found here. Bitcoin statistics can be found here, here and here. Developer resources can be found here and here. Peer-reviewed research papers can be found here. The number of times Bitcoin was declared dead by the media can be found here. Scaling resources here, and of course the whitepaper that started it all.
Where can I buy bitcoins?
BuyBitcoinWorldwide.com and Howtobuybitcoin.io are helpful sites for beginners. You can buy or sell any amount of bitcoin and there are several easy methods to purchase bitcoin with cash, credit card or bank transfer. Some of the more popular resources are below, also, check out the bitcoinity exchange resources for a larger list of options for purchases.
Here is a listing of local ATMs. If you would like your paycheck automatically converted to bitcoin use Cashila or Bitwage. Note: Bitcoins are valued at whatever market price people are willing to pay for them in balancing act of supply vs demand. Unlike traditional markets, bitcoin markets operate 24 hours per day, 365 days per year. Preev is a useful site that that shows how much various denominations of bitcoin are worth in different currencies. Alternatively you can just Google "1 bitcoin in (your local currency)".
Securing your bitcoins
With bitcoin you can "Be your own bank" and personally secure your bitcoins OR you can use third party companies aka "Bitcoin banks" which will hold the bitcoins for you.
If you prefer to "Be your own bank" and have direct control over your coins without having to use a trusted third party, there are many software wallet options here. If you want easy and secure storage without having to learn computer security best practices, then a hardware wallet such as the Trezor or Ledger is recommended. A more advanced option is to secure them yourself using paper wallets generated offline. Some popular mobile and desktop options are listed below and most are cross platform.
If you prefer to let third party "Bitcoin banks" manage your coins, try Coinbase or Xapo but be aware you may not be in control of your private keys in which case you would have to ask permission to access your funds and be exposed to third party risk.
Another interesting use case for physical storage/transfer is the Opendime. Opendime is a small USB stick that allows you to spend Bitcoin by physically passing it along so it's anonymous and tangible like cash. Note: For increased security, use Two Factor Authentication (2FA) everywhere it is offered, including email! 2FA requires a second confirmation code to access your account, usually from a text message or app, making it much harder for thieves to gain access. Google Authenticator and Authy are the two most popular 2FA services, download links are below. Make sure you create backups of your 2FA codes.
Mining bitcoins can be a fun learning experience, but be aware that you will most likely operate at a loss. Newcomers are often advised to stay away from mining unless they are only interested in it as a hobby similar to folding at home. If you want to learn more about mining you can read more here. Still have mining questions? The crew at /BitcoinMining would be happy to help you out. If you want to contribute to the bitcoin network by hosting the blockchain and propagating transactions you can run a full node using this setup guide. Bitseed is an easy option for getting set up. You can view the global node distribution here.
Just like any other form of money, you can also earn bitcoins by being paid to do a job.
You can also earn bitcoins by participating as a market maker on JoinMarket by allowing users to perform CoinJoin transactions with your bitcoins for a small fee (requires you to already have some bitcoins)
The following is a short list of ongoing projects that might be worth taking a look at if you are interested in current development in the bitcoin space.
One Bitcoin is quite large (hundreds of £/$/€) so people often deal in smaller units. The most common subunits are listed below:
1,000 per bitcoin
SI unit for milli i.e. millilitre (mL) or millimetre (mm)
1,000,000 per bitcoin
SI unit for micro i.e microlitre (μL) or micrometre (μm)
1,000,000 per bitcoin
Colloquial "slang" term for microbitcoin
100,000,000 per bitcoin
Smallest unit in bitcoin, named after the inventor
For example, assuming an arbitrary exchange rate of $500 for one Bitcoin, a $10 meal would equal:
For more information check out the Bitcoin units wiki. Still have questions? Feel free to ask in the comments below or stick around for our weekly Mentor Monday thread. If you decide to post a question in /Bitcoin, please use the search bar to see if it has been answered before, and remember to follow the community rules outlined on the sidebar to receive a better response. The mods are busy helping manage our community so please do not message them unless you notice problems with the functionality of the subreddit. A complete list of bitcoin related subreddits can be found here Note: This is a community created FAQ. If you notice anything missing from the FAQ or that requires clarification you can edit it here and it will be included in the next revision pending approval. Welcome to the Bitcoin community and the new decentralized economy!
Hi Bitcoiners! I’m back with the 30th monthly Bitcoin news recap. For those unfamiliar, each day I pick out the most popularelevant/interesting stories in Bitcoin and save them. At the end of the month I release them in one batch, to give you a quick (but not necessarily the best) overview of what happened in bitcoin over the past month. You can see recaps of the previous months on Bitcoinsnippets.com A recap of Bitcoin in May 2019 Adoption
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