Bitcoin-Transaktion. Alles über Kryptowährung - BitcoinWiki

Bitcoin Hardware Wallets

Learn about using Bitcoin hardware wallets for secure cold storage.
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Bitcoin - The Currency of the Internet

A community dedicated to Bitcoin, the currency of the Internet. Bitcoin is a distributed, worldwide, decentralized digital money. Bitcoins are issued and managed without any central authority whatsoever: there is no government, company, or bank in charge of Bitcoin. You might be interested in Bitcoin if you like cryptography, distributed peer-to-peer systems, or economics. A large percentage of Bitcoin enthusiasts are libertarians, though people of all political philosophies are welcome.
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Bitcoin India

Discussions and news about Bitcoins in India
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This is the example seed on the bitcoin wiki. People keep using it as their wallet 😂😂😂

This is the example seed on the bitcoin wiki. People keep using it as their wallet 😂😂😂 submitted by atrueretard to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

The 10 Best Bitcoin Wallets 2020 by Ezvid Wiki

The 10 Best Bitcoin Wallets 2020 by Ezvid Wiki submitted by SecuXvault to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

SecuX Crypto Hardware Wallets V20, W20, W10 Ranked #4, #7, #8 in Ezvid Wiki’s 10 Best Bitcoin Wallets 2020

SecuX Crypto Hardware Wallets V20, W20, W10 Ranked #4, #7, #8 in Ezvid Wiki’s 10 Best Bitcoin Wallets 2020

The 10 Best Bitcoin Wallets by Ezvid Wiki

We are so excited to announce that our Cross-Platform Crypto Hardware Wallets SecuX V20, W20, W10 have been listed in Ezvid's Wiki of the top 4, 7, 8 Best Bitcoin Wallets for 2020. The video wiki can be viewed here: https://wiki.ezvid.com/best-bitcoin-wallets
Life after lockdown: Contactless Crypto Mobile Payment Solution can be viewed here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oJBcLiWJmaU
submitted by SecuXvault to u/SecuXvault [link] [comments]

SecuX Crypto Hardware Wallets V20, W20 and W10 Ranked #4, #7 and #8 among Ezvid Wiki’s Top 10 Best Bitcoin Wallets 2020

SecuX Crypto Hardware Wallets V20, W20 and W10 Ranked #4, #7 and #8 among Ezvid Wiki’s Top 10 Best Bitcoin Wallets 2020 submitted by SecuXvault to u/SecuXvault [link] [comments]

SecuX Crypto Hardware Wallets V20, W20 and W10 Ranked #4, #7 and #8 among Ezvid Wiki’s Top 10 Best Bitcoin Wallets 2020

SecuX Crypto Hardware Wallets V20, W20 and W10 Ranked #4, #7 and #8 among Ezvid Wiki’s Top 10 Best Bitcoin Wallets 2020 submitted by SecuXwallet to u/SecuXwallet [link] [comments]

Luke-Jr decides to rename "paper wallet" to "Paper ECDSA private keys" for all of us. Replaces all paper wallet information on the Bitcoin Wiki with what he prefers to use (HD mnemonic wallet backups).

Luke-Jr doesn't like paper wallets. To this end, he has renamed/moved the official Bitcoin wiki for "Paper Wallet" to "Paper ECDSA private keys", making it confusing and difficult for users to learn what a paper wallet is and how to stay safe when making one. Meanwhile, he has created a brand new "Paper wallet" page in which he redefines a paper wallet as a Armory/Electrum backup of a HD wallet mnemonic seed, and says that these should not be confused with what you and I and everyone else calls a paper wallet.
The other contribution Luke-Jr made to the original paper wallet wiki was to unlink my own service (bitcoinpaperwallet.com) from the wiki, his reasoning being, "BitcoinPaperWallet was removed because it is a website for generating private keys". As someone who has put a lot of energy into paper wallet education and generally helping the bitcoin community with paper wallet generation, I find this utterly baffling.
I don't want to get involved in a revision battle here. Luke-Jr has already started that, reverting any changes I make to the wiki instantly.
If you have an opinion on this matter and you have bitcoin wiki editor privileges, please express it on the discussion page.
Edit 1: you can also express opinions right here of course :)
Edit 2: much of the discussion on this page is about whether or not paper wallets are a good idea, or if websites should be used to generate them. Can we at least agree that these pro/con arguments should appear on a wiki page called "paper wallets" so everyone can find them? If those arguments appear on a wiki page called "Paper ECDSA private keys" then nobody will see them.
Edit 3: Gladoscc on the wiki has renamed "Paper ECDSA private keys" back to "Paper Wallet" as of 12:41 UTC, so you may be confused if you visit the wiki to see what all the hubbub is about -- unless his change has been reverted by the time you read this. :)
Edit 4: Gladoscc's change didn't last for more than 24 hours before Luke-Jr re-reverted the changes, and then added in a confounding set of redirects in the wiki so that "Paper Wallet" redirects to "Paper wallet" which then redirects to his page on HD wallet mnemonic seeds. I cannot understand how this is supposed to help end users who want to learn what a paper wallet is (and why they're risky, and how hard it is to produce them in a safe way.)
submitted by cantonbecker to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Two Proposed BIPs - Bluetooth Communication and bitcoin: URI Scheme Improvements | Andy Schroder | Feb 05 2015

Andy Schroder on Feb 05 2015:
Hello,
With the recent discussion started today regarding another bluetooth
communication proposal created by Airbitz, I'd like to bring people's
attention back to this proposal that saw little discussion last fall. I
guess I'm not sure why two proposals are being created. Is their some
advantage of using bluetooth low energy over standard bluetooth (I'm not
well versed in bluetooth low energy)? This NFC coupled approach seems to
avoid a lot of issues with identifying the correct payee. You can see
this proposed scheme demonstrated in action in a POS application in the
video link below which demonstrates it with my fuel pump and Andreas
Schildbach's wallet.
There was a small discussion that occurred after my original
announcement below. If you are new to this e-mail list, you can find an
archive of those few replies here:
https://www.mail-archive.com/bitcoin-development%40lists.sourceforge.net/msg06354.html
Since this original announcement, a few improvements have been made to
the proposal:
  1. Improved documentation and explanation of the use cases in
    Schildbach's wallet's wiki
    1. https://github.com/schildbach/bitcoin-wallet/wiki/Payment-Requests
  2. Issue with the payment_url field has resolved by changing to a
    repeated field and requiring the wallet to search for the protocol
    they want to use, rather than expecting it to be a certain element
    number in the list.
    1. https://github.com/AndySchrodebips/blob/mastetbip-0075.mediawiki
Although there are some interesting use cases of Airbitz's proposal's
work flow, tapping an NFC radio with a 5 mm range requires much less
brain power and time than picking the correct name on the app's screen.
The manual name picking is going to be especially crazy in a very
congested location. The payer isn't ever going to want to have to try
and figure out what register or payment terminal they are at for most
applications I would ever use.
I'd like to see something happen with this technology. I've also noticed
that micropayment channels have little formality to being established
practically and it would be awesome if they could be managed over
bluetooth as well. Maybe more improvements to the payment protocol can
simultaneously result (and also extended to bluetooth) that embrace the
establishment of micropayment channels.
Andy Schroder
On 10/17/2014 03:58 PM, Andy Schroder wrote:
Hello,
I'd like to introduce two proposed BIPs. They are primarily focused on
implementing the payment protocol using bluetooth connections. I've
been working on automated point of sale devices and bluetooth
communication is critical in my mind due to the potential lack of
internet access at many points of sale, either due to lack of cellular
internet coverage, lack of payee providing wireless internet, and/or
due to financial constraints of the payer prohibiting them from
maintaining a cellular internet service plan. These BIPs are largely
modeled after the current functionality of Andreas Schildbach's
android Bitcoin Wallet's bluetooth capability. I've discussed the
communication scheme with him in depth and believe these proposals to
clearly and accurately represent the communication scheme.
There is also an additional &h= parameter added to the bitcoin: URI
scheme which applies to both bluetooth and http payment protocol
requests which allows for a hash of the payment request to be
included. This hash was proposed by Andreas as an amendment to BIP72,
but others preferred not to amend BIP72 since it has already been put
into place. The current version of Schildbach's bitcoin wallet already
supports the "h parameter".
I'd appreciate feedback from everyone, particularly wallet developers
as widespread bluetooth support among wallets is very important to me.
I'm also very new to this mailing list as well as the BIP writing
process, so I'd appreciate your understanding if my conventions are
not standard. I am currently using the naming conventions "TBIP", so
that I can propose /temporary/ BIP numbers, and cross reference
between the two. Obviously these will change if the BIPs are formally
adopted. You can find a copy of these proposed BIPs at the following
links:
If you are interested, you can see a demonstration of many of the
proposed features using Schildbach's wallet and my fuel pump in a
video I recently created: https://youtu.be/kkVAhA75k1Y . The main
thing not implemented is multiple URLs for the payment protocol, so,
as a hack, I'm just presenting https vi QR code and bluetooth via NFC
on my fuel pump for now.
There are a few known issues that could be improved to this bluetooth
communication scheme as well as the general payment protocol and
myself and Andreas would like to receive feedback regarding concerns
and potential solutions. Some of the known issues are:
Your comments and suggestions would be greatly appreciated.

Andy Schroder
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submitted by bitcoin-devlist-bot to bitcoin_devlist [link] [comments]

The Bitcoinwallet Wiki is now up and running, volunteers wanted

I've opened up the BitcoinWallet Wiki for editing to allow aggregation of the best content in this subreddit.
Together we can make /BitcoinWallet the primary independent information source on the web that people go to for help with wallet issues, help, and information.
Help advance the bitcoin revolution by helping people get good information about how to store their bitcoin safely and securely, what wallet are the most suitable for their needs, and much more.
Anyone with an Reddit-account over 100 days old is now able to edit the Wiki. Feel free to create new pages, add info, jot down your experiences and guides, etc.
Thanks for making Bitcoinwallet a great place for people to get help with and learn about storing and using bitcoin!
submitted by Anenome5 to BitcoinWallet [link] [comments]

3 unanswered Bitcoin questions

1. Bitcoin days destroyed on Coinbase

On initially thinking it through you would think that the growth of the Bitcoin network could be judged by looking at the number of transactions per day. The problem however is that someone could just send a single satoshi back and forth between 2 wallets an increasing number of times each day and it would artificially make the network appear that the number of transactions per day was increasing.
To handle this situation more accurately Bitcoin has the metric Bitcoin Days Destroyed
Bitcoin days destroyed for any given transaction is calculated by taking the number of Bitcoins in a transaction and multiplying it by the number of days it has been since those coins were last spent.
So an appropriate pseudo-algorithm would be:
bitcoin_days_destroyed = number_of_bitcoins_in_transaction * number_of_days_since_those_coins_were_spent

Example

So a simple example is a user who has 10 bitcoins. This user leaves the bitcoin in their wallet for a complete week and then spend them all buying a brand new DW drum set.
According to our algorithm above how many Bitcoin Days were destroyed?
`number_of_bitcoins_in_transaction = 10 number_of_days_since_those_coins_were_spent = 7 bitcoin_days_destroyed = number_of_bitcoins_in_transaction * number_of_days_since_those_coins_were_spent

7 Bitcoin Days Destroyed`

Regarding Coinbase off-blockchain transactions

Coinbase recently announced that you can send micro-transactions between Coinbase wallets that have 0 fees and are confirmed instantly.
This makes micro-transactions truly feasible by overcoming the bitcoin dust problem
My question is how do Bitcoin Days destroyed work with regards to off-blockchain transactions?
If Coinbase (and other off-blockchain transaction vendors) doesn't accurately reflect the number of bitcoin days destroyed in off-blockchain transactions then as a community are we getting an accurate view of how quickly the Bitcoin economy and transactions are growing?

2. Harder or easier to launch alt-coins in the future

Each day we hear about a new alt coin being created. This is the combination of a couple of factors. The first is that it's getting easier and easier to create an alt-coin. Many have now paved the way and there are even pay services which let you just pay some cash, plug in some values, and it creates the alt coin for you.
Now with the emergence of the so called 'bitcoin 2.0' and projects like mastercoin and colored coins we are going to see even more alt coins built on top of the blockchain.
The second reason that we're seeing so many alt coins is that as the difficulty level to mine a bitcoin block becomes ever more difficult all of the outdated mining hardware begins mining a different coin.
My question is will it be easier to launch an alt coin in the future due to the proliferation of tools and open source code or will it be harder because of the chance that your alt coin's blockchain could be 51%ed by all of the mining power sitting out on the web.

3. Do off blockchain zero fee transactions ultimately hurt the network in any way.

The Bitcoin Coinbase is the number of coins that get released to the wallet of the computer which mines the latest block about each 10 minutes. Every 4 years the value of the coinbase gets cut in half.
It started at 50 coins every block then it got cut to 25 coins per block and in the future it will continue to get cut in half until the year 2140 when all (nearly) 21,000,000 bitcoins will have been mined.
The way that the miners continue to pay for mining gear as the coinbase drops to zero is that they are rewarded all of the transaction fees that accrue since the mining of the last block.
However in off-blockchain zero fee transactions there are literally zero fees accrued for the miners to benefit from.
My question is as the number of transactions that are happening in off-blockchain zero fee transactions services increases does it somehow hurt the network because it's not generating the fees which the miners are going to come to rely on as the coinbase drops.
submitted by cgcardona to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

The paper wallet page on Bitcoin wiki is back!

The paper wallet page on Bitcoin wiki is back! submitted by ThePiachu to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Wasabi - Bech32 compatible wallets - Bitcoin Wiki

submitted by transisto to WasabiWallet [link] [comments]

BIP: 44 Layer: Applications Title: Multi-Account Hierarchy for Deterministic Wallets Author: Marek Palatinus Pavol Rusnak Comments-Summary: Mixed review (one person) Comments-URI: https://github.com/bitcoin/bips/wiki/Comments:BIP-0044 Status: Proposed

This file is part of the Trezor project.

Copyright (C) 2012-2018 SatoshiLabs and contributors

This library is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify

it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License version 3

as published by the Free Software Foundation.

This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,

but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of

MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the

GNU Lesser General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the License along with this library.

If not, see https://www.gnu.org/licenses/lgpl-3.0.html.

import binascii import functools import getpass import logging import os import sys import time import warnings
from mnemonic import Mnemonic
from . import ( btc, cosi, debuglink, device, ethereum, firmware, lisk, mapping, messages as proto, misc, nem, stellar, tools, )
if sys.version_info.major < 3: raise Exception("Trezorlib does not support Python 2 anymore.")
SCREENSHOT = False LOG = logging.getLogger(name)

make a getch function

try: import termios import tty
# POSIX system. Create and return a getch that manipulates the tty. # On Windows, termios will fail to import.
def getch(): fd = sys.stdin.fileno() old_settings = termios.tcgetattr(fd) try: tty.setraw(fd) ch = sys.stdin.read(1) finally: termios.tcsetattr(fd, termios.TCSADRAIN, old_settings) return ch
except ImportError: # Windows system. # Use msvcrt's getch function. import msvcrt
def getch(): while True: key = msvcrt.getch() if key in (0x00, 0xe0): # skip special keys: read the scancode and repeat msvcrt.getch() continue return key.decode()
def get_buttonrequest_value(code): # Converts integer code to its string representation of ButtonRequestType return [ k for k in dir(proto.ButtonRequestType) if getattr(proto.ButtonRequestType, k) == code ][0]
class PinException(tools.CallException): pass
class MovedTo: """Deprecation redirector for methods that were formerly part of TrezorClient"""
def init(self, where): self.where = where self.name = where.module + "." + where.name
def _deprecated_redirect(self, client, args, *kwargs): """Redirector for a deprecated method on TrezorClient""" warnings.warn( "Function has been moved to %s" % self.name, DeprecationWarning, stacklevel=2, ) return self.where(client, args, *kwargs)
def get(self, instance, cls): if instance is None: return self._deprecated_redirect else: return functools.partial(self._deprecated_redirect, instance)
class BaseClient(object): # Implements very basic layer of sending raw protobuf # messages to device and getting its response back. def init(self, transport, *kwargs): LOG.info("creating client instance for device: {}".format(transport.getpath())) self.transport = transport super(BaseClient, self).init_() # *args, *kwargs)
def close(self): pass
def cancel(self): self.transport.write(proto.Cancel())
@tools.session def callraw(self, msg): tracebackhide_ = True # for pytest # pylint: disable=W0612 self.transport.write(msg) return self.transport.read()
@tools.session def call(self, msg): resp = self.callraw(msg) handler_name = "callback%s" % resp.class.name handler = getattr(self, handler_name, None)
if handler is not None: msg = handler(resp) if msg is None: raise ValueError( "Callback %s must return protobuf message, not None" % handler ) resp = self.call(msg)
return resp
def callback_Failure(self, msg): if msg.code in ( proto.FailureType.PinInvalid, proto.FailureType.PinCancelled, proto.FailureType.PinExpected, ): raise PinException(msg.code, msg.message)
raise tools.CallException(msg.code, msg.message)
def register_message(self, msg): """Allow application to register custom protobuf message type""" mapping.register_message(msg)
class TextUIMixin(object): # This class demonstrates easy test-based UI # integration between the device and wallet. # You can implement similar functionality # by implementing your own GuiMixin with # graphical widgets for every type of these callbacks.
def init(self, args, *kwargs): super(TextUIMixin, self).init(args, *kwargs)
@staticmethod def print(text): print(text, file=sys.stderr)
def callback_ButtonRequest(self, msg): # log("Sending ButtonAck for %s " % get_buttonrequest_value(msg.code)) return proto.ButtonAck()
def callback_RecoveryMatrix(self, msg): if self.recovery_matrix_first_pass: self.recovery_matrix_first_pass = False self.print( "Use the numeric keypad to describe positions. For the word list use only left and right keys." ) self.print("Use backspace to correct an entry. The keypad layout is:") self.print(" 7 8 9 7 | 9") self.print(" 4 5 6 4 | 6") self.print(" 1 2 3 1 | 3") while True: character = getch() if character in ("\x03", "\x04"): return proto.Cancel()
if character in ("\x08", "\x7f"): return proto.WordAck(word="\x08")
# ignore middle column if only 6 keys requested. if msg.type == proto.WordRequestType.Matrix6 and character in ( "2", "5", "8", ): continue
if character.isdigit(): return proto.WordAck(word=character)
def callback_PinMatrixRequest(self, msg): if msg.type == proto.PinMatrixRequestType.Current: desc = "current PIN" elif msg.type == proto.PinMatrixRequestType.NewFirst: desc = "new PIN" elif msg.type == proto.PinMatrixRequestType.NewSecond: desc = "new PIN again" else: desc = "PIN"
self.print( "Use the numeric keypad to describe number positions. The layout is:" ) self.print(" 7 8 9") self.print(" 4 5 6") self.print(" 1 2 3") self.print("Please enter %s: " % desc) pin = getpass.getpass("") if not pin.isdigit(): raise ValueError("Non-numerical PIN provided") return proto.PinMatrixAck(pin=pin)
def callback_PassphraseRequest(self, msg): if msg.on_device is True: return proto.PassphraseAck()
if os.getenv("PASSPHRASE") is not None: self.print("Passphrase required. Using PASSPHRASE environment variable.") passphrase = Mnemonic.normalize_string(os.getenv("PASSPHRASE")) return proto.PassphraseAck(passphrase=passphrase)
self.print("Passphrase required: ") passphrase = getpass.getpass("") self.print("Confirm your Passphrase: ") if passphrase == getpass.getpass(""): passphrase = Mnemonic.normalize_string(passphrase) return proto.PassphraseAck(passphrase=passphrase) else: self.print("Passphrase did not match! ") exit()
def callback_PassphraseStateRequest(self, msg): return proto.PassphraseStateAck()
def callback_WordRequest(self, msg): if msg.type in (proto.WordRequestType.Matrix9, proto.WordRequestType.Matrix6): return self.callback_RecoveryMatrix(msg) self.print("Enter one word of mnemonic: ") word = input() if self.expand: word = self.mnemonic_wordlist.expand_word(word) return proto.WordAck(word=word)
class DebugLinkMixin(object): # This class implements automatic responses # and other functionality for unit tests # for various callbacks, created in order # to automatically pass unit tests. # # This mixing should be used only for purposes # of unit testing, because it will fail to work # without special DebugLink interface provided # by the device. DEBUG = LOG.getChild("debug_link").debug
def init(self, args, *kwargs): super(DebugLinkMixin, self).init(args, *kwargs) self.debug = None self.in_with_statement = 0 self.button_wait = 0 self.screenshot_id = 0
# Always press Yes and provide correct pin self.setup_debuglink(True, True)
# Do not expect any specific response from device self.expected_responses = None
# Use blank passphrase self.set_passphrase("")
def close(self): super(DebugLinkMixin, self).close() if self.debug: self.debug.close()
def set_debuglink(self, debug_transport): self.debug = debuglink.DebugLink(debug_transport)
def set_buttonwait(self, secs): self.button_wait = secs
def enter(self): # For usage in with/expected_responses self.in_with_statement += 1 return self
def exit(self, _type, value, traceback): self.in_with_statement -= 1
if _type is not None: # Another exception raised return False
# return isinstance(value, TypeError) # Evaluate missed responses in 'with' statement if self.expected_responses is not None and len(self.expected_responses): raise RuntimeError( "Some of expected responses didn't come from device: %s" % [repr(x) for x in self.expected_responses] )
# Cleanup self.expected_responses = None return False
def set_expected_responses(self, expected): if not self.in_with_statement: raise RuntimeError("Must be called inside 'with' statement") self.expected_responses = expected
def setup_debuglink(self, button, pin_correct): self.button = button # True -> YES button, False -> NO button self.pin_correct = pin_correct
def set_passphrase(self, passphrase): self.passphrase = Mnemonic.normalize_string(passphrase)
def set_mnemonic(self, mnemonic): self.mnemonic = Mnemonic.normalize_string(mnemonic).split(" ")
def callraw(self, msg): tracebackhide_ = True # for pytest # pylint: disable=W0612
if SCREENSHOT and self.debug: from PIL import Image
layout = self.debug.read_layout() im = Image.new("RGB", (128, 64)) pix = im.load() for x in range(128): for y in range(64): rx, ry = 127 - x, 63 - y if (ord(layout[rx + (ry / 8) * 128]) & (1 << (ry % 8))) > 0: pix[x, y] = (255, 255, 255) im.save("scr%05d.png" % self.screenshot_id) self.screenshot_id += 1
resp = super(DebugLinkMixin, self).call_raw(msg) self._check_request(resp) return resp
def check_request(self, msg): tracebackhide_ = True # for pytest # pylint: disable=W0612
if self.expected_responses is not None: try: expected = self.expected_responses.pop(0) except IndexError: raise AssertionError( proto.FailureType.UnexpectedMessage, "Got %s, but no message has been expected" % repr(msg), )
if msg.class != expected.class: raise AssertionError( proto.FailureType.UnexpectedMessage, "Expected %s, got %s" % (repr(expected), repr(msg)), )
for field, value in expected.dict.items(): if value is None or value == []: continue if getattr(msg, field) != value: raise AssertionError( proto.FailureType.UnexpectedMessage, "Expected %s, got %s" % (repr(expected), repr(msg)), )
def callback_ButtonRequest(self, msg): self.DEBUG("ButtonRequest code: " + get_buttonrequest_value(msg.code))
self.DEBUG("Pressing button " + str(self.button)) if self.button_wait: self.DEBUG("Waiting %d seconds " % self.button_wait) time.sleep(self.button_wait) self.debug.press_button(self.button) return proto.ButtonAck()
def callback_PinMatrixRequest(self, msg): if self.pin_correct: pin = self.debug.read_pin_encoded() else: pin = "444222" return proto.PinMatrixAck(pin=pin)
def callback_PassphraseRequest(self, msg): self.DEBUG("Provided passphrase: '%s'" % self.passphrase) return proto.PassphraseAck(passphrase=self.passphrase)
def callback_PassphraseStateRequest(self, msg): return proto.PassphraseStateAck()
def callback_WordRequest(self, msg): (word, pos) = self.debug.read_recovery_word() if word != "": return proto.WordAck(word=word) if pos != 0: return proto.WordAck(word=self.mnemonic[pos - 1])
raise RuntimeError("Unexpected call")
class ProtocolMixin(object): VENDORS = ("bitcointrezor.com", "trezor.io")
def init(self, state=None, args, *kwargs): super(ProtocolMixin, self).init(args, *kwargs) self.state = state self.init_device() self.tx_api = None
def set_tx_api(self, tx_api): self.tx_api = tx_api
def init_device(self): init_msg = proto.Initialize() if self.state is not None: init_msg.state = self.state self.features = tools.expect(proto.Features)(self.call)(init_msg) if str(self.features.vendor) not in self.VENDORS: raise RuntimeError("Unsupported device")
@staticmethod def expand_path(n): warnings.warn( "expand_path is deprecated, use tools.parse_path", DeprecationWarning, stacklevel=2, ) return tools.parse_path(n)
@tools.expect(proto.Success, field="message") def ping( self, msg, button_protection=False, pin_protection=False, passphrase_protection=False, ): msg = proto.Ping( message=msg, button_protection=button_protection, pin_protection=pin_protection, passphrase_protection=passphrase_protection, ) return self.call(msg)
def get_device_id(self): return self.features.device_id
def _prepare_sign_tx(self, inputs, outputs): tx = proto.TransactionType() tx.inputs = inputs tx.outputs = outputs
txes = {None: tx}
for inp in inputs: if inp.prev_hash in txes: continue
if inp.script_type in ( proto.InputScriptType.SPENDP2SHWITNESS, proto.InputScriptType.SPENDWITNESS, ): continue
if not self.tx_api: raise RuntimeError("TX_API not defined")
prev_tx = self.tx_api.get_tx(binascii.hexlify(inp.prev_hash).decode()) txes[inp.prev_hash] = prev_tx
return txes
@tools.expect(proto.Success, field="message") def clear_session(self): return self.call(proto.ClearSession())
# Device functionality wipe_device = MovedTo(device.wipe) recovery_device = MovedTo(device.recover) reset_device = MovedTo(device.reset) backup_device = MovedTo(device.backup)
# debugging load_device_by_mnemonic = MovedTo(debuglink.load_device_by_mnemonic) load_device_by_xprv = MovedTo(debuglink.load_device_by_xprv) self_test = MovedTo(debuglink.self_test)
set_u2f_counter = MovedTo(device.set_u2f_counter)
apply_settings = MovedTo(device.apply_settings) apply_flags = MovedTo(device.apply_flags) change_pin = MovedTo(device.change_pin)
# Firmware functionality firmware_update = MovedTo(firmware.update)
# BTC-like functionality get_public_node = MovedTo(btc.get_public_node) get_address = MovedTo(btc.get_address) sign_tx = MovedTo(btc.sign_tx) sign_message = MovedTo(btc.sign_message) verify_message = MovedTo(btc.verify_message)
# CoSi functionality cosi_commit = MovedTo(cosi.commit) cosi_sign = MovedTo(cosi.sign)
# Ethereum functionality ethereum_get_address = MovedTo(ethereum.get_address) ethereum_sign_tx = MovedTo(ethereum.sign_tx) ethereum_sign_message = MovedTo(ethereum.sign_message) ethereum_verify_message = MovedTo(ethereum.verify_message)
# Lisk functionality lisk_get_address = MovedTo(lisk.get_address) lisk_get_public_key = MovedTo(lisk.get_public_key) lisk_sign_message = MovedTo(lisk.sign_message) lisk_verify_message = MovedTo(lisk.verify_message) lisk_sign_tx = MovedTo(lisk.sign_tx)
# NEM functionality nem_get_address = MovedTo(nem.get_address) nem_sign_tx = MovedTo(nem.sign_tx)
# Stellar functionality stellar_get_address = MovedTo(stellar.get_address) stellar_sign_transaction = MovedTo(stellar.sign_tx)
# Miscellaneous cryptographic functionality get_entropy = MovedTo(misc.get_entropy) sign_identity = MovedTo(misc.sign_identity) get_ecdh_session_key = MovedTo(misc.get_ecdh_session_key) encrypt_keyvalue = MovedTo(misc.encrypt_keyvalue) decrypt_keyvalue = MovedTo(misc.decrypt_keyvalue)
class TrezorClient(ProtocolMixin, TextUIMixin, BaseClient): def init(self, transport, args, *kwargs): super().init(transport=transport, args, *kwargs)
class TrezorClientDebugLink(ProtocolMixin, DebugLinkMixin, BaseClient): def init(self, transport, args, *kwargs): super().init(transport=transport, args, *kwargs) Desktop version
submitted by REWADEE25 to u/REWADEE25 [link] [comments]

I have read the appropriate wiki pages, learned the fundamentals, and have purchased a decent ($500 USD) amount of bitcoin cash and deposited in my online wallet. Now my only question is do you personally think it's worth me continuing to take small amounts of money each month and investi /r/btc

I have read the appropriate wiki pages, learned the fundamentals, and have purchased a decent ($500 USD) amount of bitcoin cash and deposited in my online wallet. Now my only question is do you personally think it's worth me continuing to take small amounts of money each month and investi /btc submitted by HiIAMCaptainObvious to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Learned about Lightning Network today. Mind blown.

I finally looked into how the Lightning Network works, and holy shit it's a game changer (on top the already existing game changer, btc). Zero fee transactions or extremely low fee transactions (depending on the number of hops in the payment path). Even 1 or 10 sat tx for 0 fee, if you have a payment channel open with the node you're paying.
If you're interested in learning about Lightning, these videos are pretty good: 402 Payment Required: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLmoQ11MXEmajsUw95Fq6fHzXnVmoMPIeV
We know Btc is going to dominate as a store of value, but Lightning is going dominate as a scalable payment network
This will put so much pressure on Visa, Cirrus, Paypal, Venmo, etc after it gets more adoption. In the very near future, electronic payment companies & banks will need to "pivot to a business model of creating value", instead of just living off rents from their legacy banking infrastructure.
submitted by facepalm5000 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

The Wallet Import Format on the Bitcoin wiki has different hash results for their SHA-256 hashes than I'm getting…

On the Wallet Import Format page on the Bitcoin wiki (https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Wallet_import_format) it has a hexadecimal string
800C28FCA386C7A227600B2FE50B7CAE11EC86D3BF1FBE471BE89827E19D72AA1D 
And it says that the SHA-256 hash of this is
8147786C4D15106333BF278D71DADAF1079EF2D2440A4DDE37D747DED5403592 
I'm not getting that. I've tried both an online hasher, and Python's hashlib, and I'm not getting that hash. Perhaps is the wiki incorrect? Or perhaps are they using a different hash algorithm than SHA-256?
EDIT:
For clarification, I keep getting
e2e4146a36e9c455cf95a4f259f162c353cd419cc3fd0e69ae36d7d1b6cd2c09 
as the SHA-256 hash.
submitted by Plazmotech to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Daily Discussion, October 03, 2020

Please utilize this sticky thread for all general Bitcoin discussions! If you see posts on the front page or /Bitcoin/new which are better suited for this daily discussion thread, please help out by directing the OP to this thread instead. Thank you!
If you don't get an answer to your question, you can try phrasing it differently or commenting again tomorrow.
Join us in the Bitcoin Chatroom!
Please check the previous discussion thread for unanswered questions.
submitted by rBitcoinMod to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

The paper wallet page on Bitcoin wiki is back!

The paper wallet page on Bitcoin wiki is back! submitted by moon_drone to BetterBitcoin [link] [comments]

Putting $400M of Bitcoin on your company balance sheet

Also posted on my blog as usual. Read it there if you can, there are footnotes and inlined plots.
A couple of months ago, MicroStrategy (MSTR) had a spare $400M of cash which it decided to shift to Bitcoin (BTC).
Today we'll discuss in excrutiating detail why this is not a good idea.
When a company has a pile of spare money it doesn't know what to do with, it'll normally do buybacks or start paying dividends. That gives the money back to the shareholders, and from an economic perspective the money can get better invested in other more promising companies. If you have a huge pile of of cash, you probably should be doing other things than leave it in a bank account to gather dust.
However, this statement from MicroStrategy CEO Michael Saylor exists to make it clear he's buying into BTC for all the wrong reasons:
“This is not a speculation, nor is it a hedge. This was a deliberate corporate strategy to adopt a bitcoin standard.”
Let's unpack it and jump into the economics Bitcoin:

Is Bitcoin money?

No.
Or rather BTC doesn't act as money and there's no serious future path for BTC to become a form of money. Let's go back to basics. There are 3 main economic problems money solves:
1. Medium of Exchange. Before money we had to barter, which led to the double coincidence of wants problem. When everyone accepts the same money you can buy something from someone even if they don't like the stuff you own.
As a medium of exchange, BTC is not good. There are significant transaction fees and transaction waiting times built-in to BTC and these worsen the more popular BTC get.
You can test BTC's usefulness as a medium of exchange for yourself right now: try to order a pizza or to buy a random item with BTC. How many additional hurdles do you have to go through? How many fewer options do you have than if you used a regular currency? How much overhead (time, fees) is there?
2. Unit of Account. A unit of account is what you compare the value of objects against. We denominate BTC in terms of how many USD they're worth, so BTC is a unit of account presently. We can say it's because of lack of adoption, but really it's also because the market value of BTC is so volatile.
If I buy a $1000 table today or in 2017, it's roughly a $1000 table. We can't say that a 0.4BTC table was a 0.4BTC table in 2017. We'll expand on this in the next point:
3. Store of Value. When you create economic value, you don't want to be forced to use up the value you created right away.
For instance, if I fix your washing machine and you pay me in avocados, I'd be annoyed. I'd have to consume my payment before it becomes brown, squishy and disgusting. Avocado fruit is not good money because avocadoes loses value very fast.
On the other hand, well-run currencies like the USD, GBP, CAD, EUR, etc. all lose their value at a low and most importantly fairly predictible rate. Let's look at the chart of the USD against BTC
While the dollar loses value at a predictible rate, BTC is all over the place, which is bad.
One important use money is to write loan contracts. Loans are great. They let people spend now against their future potential earnings, so they can buy houses or start businesses without first saving up for a decade. Loans are good for the economy.
If you want to sign something that says "I owe you this much for that much time" then you need to be able to roughly predict the value of the debt in at the point in time where it's due.
Otherwise you'll have a hard time pricing the risk of the loan effectively. This means that you need to charge higher interests. The risk of making a loan in BTC needs to be priced into the interest of a BTC-denominated loan, which means much higher interest rates. High interests on loans are bad, because buying houses and starting businesses are good things.

BTC has a fixed supply, so these problems are built in

Some people think that going back to a standard where our money was denominated by a stock of gold (the Gold Standard) would solve economic problems. This is nonsense.
Having control over supply of your currency is a good thing, as long as it's well run.
See here
Remember that what is desirable is low variance in the value, not the value itself. When there are wild fluctuations in value, it's hard for money to do its job well.
Since the 1970s, the USD has been a fiat money with no intrinsic value. This means we control the supply of money.
Let's look at a classic poorly drawn econ101 graph
The market price for USD is where supply meets demand. The problem with a currency based on an item whose supply is fixed is that the price will necessarily fluctuate in response to changes in demand.
Imagine, if you will, that a pandemic strikes and that the demand for currency takes a sharp drop. The US imports less, people don't buy anything anymore, etc. If you can't print money, you get deflation, which is worsens everything. On the other hand, if you can make the money printers go brrrr you can stabilize the price
Having your currency be based on a fixed supply isn't just bad because in/deflation is hard to control.
It's also a national security risk...
The story of the guy who crashed gold prices in North Africa
In the 1200s, Mansa Munsa, the emperor of the Mali, was rich and a devout Muslim and wanted everyone to know it. So he embarked on a pilgrimage to make it rain all the way to Mecca.
He in fact made it rain so hard he increased the overall supply of gold and unintentionally crashed gold prices in Cairo by 20%, wreaking an economic havoc in North Africa that lasted a decade.
This story is fun, the larger point that having your inflation be at the mercy of foreign nations is an undesirable attribute in any currency. The US likes to call some countries currency manipulators, but this problem would be serious under a gold standard.

Currencies are based on trust

Since the USD is based on nothing except the US government's word, how can we trust USD not to be mismanaged?
The answer is that you can probably trust the fed until political stooges get put in place. Currently, the US's central bank managing the USD, the Federal Reserve (the Fed for friends & family), has administrative authority. The fed can say "no" to dumb requests from the president.
People who have no idea what the fed does like to chant "audit the fed", but the fed is already one of the best audited US federal entities. The transcripts of all their meetings are out in the open. As is their balance sheet, what they plan to do and why. If the US should audit anything it's the Department of Defense which operates without any accounting at all.
It's easy to see when a central bank will go rogue: it's when political yes-men are elected to the board.
For example, before printing themselves into hyperinflation, the Venezuelan president appointed a sociologist who publicly stated “Inflation does not exist in real life” and instead is a made up capitalist lie. Note what happened mere months after his gaining control over the Venezuelan currency
This is a key policy. One paper I really like, Sargent (1984) "The end of 4 big inflations" states:
The essential measures that ended hyperinflation in each of Germany,Austria, Hungary, and Poland were, first, the creation of an independentcentral bank that was legally committed to refuse the government'sdemand or additional unsecured credit and, second, a simultaneousalteration in the fiscal policy regime.
In english: *hyperinflation stops when the central bank can say "no" to the government."
The US Fed, like other well good central banks, is run by a bunch of nerds. When it prints money, even as aggressively as it has it does so for good reasons. You can see why they started printing on March 15th as the COVID lockdowns started:
The Federal Reserve is prepared to use its full range of tools to support the flow of credit to households and businesses and thereby promote its maximum employment and price stability goals.
In english: We're going to keep printing and lowering rates until jobs are back and inflation is under control. If we print until the sun is blotted out, we'll print in the shade.

BTC is not gold

Gold is a good asset for doomsday-preppers. If society crashes, gold will still have value.
How do we know that?
Gold has held value throughout multiple historic catastrophes over thousands of years. It had value before and after the Bronze Age Collapse, the Fall of the Western Roman Empire and Gengis Khan being Gengis Khan.
Even if you erased humanity and started over, the new humans would still find gold to be economically valuable. When Europeans d̶i̶s̶c̶o̶v̶e̶r̶e̶d̶ c̶o̶n̶q̶u̶e̶r̶e̶d̶ g̶e̶n̶o̶c̶i̶d̶e̶d̶ went to America, they found gold to be an important item over there too. This is about equivalent to finding humans on Alpha-Centauri and learning that they think gold is a good store of value as well.
Some people are puzzled at this: we don't even use gold for much! But it has great properties:
First, gold is hard to fake and impossible to manufacture. This makes it good to ascertain payment.
Second, gold doesnt react to oxygen, so it doesn't rust or tarnish. So it keeps value over time unlike most other materials.
Last, gold is pretty. This might sound frivolous, and you may not like it, but jewelry has actual value to humans.
It's no coincidence if you look at a list of the wealthiest families, a large number of them trade in luxury goods.
To paraphrase Veblen humans have a profound desire to signal social status, for the same reason peacocks have unwieldy tails. Gold is a great way to achieve that.
On the other hand, BTC lacks all these attributes. Its value is largely based on common perception of value. There are a few fundamental drivers of demand:
Apart from these, it's hard to argue that BTC will retain value throughout some sort of economic catastrophe.

BTC is really risky

One last statement from Michael Saylor I take offense to is this:
“We feel pretty confident that Bitcoin is less risky than holding cash, less risky than holding gold,” MicroStrategy CEO said in an interview
"BTC is less risky than holding cash or gold long term" is nonsense. We saw before that BTC is more volatile on face value, and that as long as the Fed isn't run by spider monkeys stacked in a trench coat, the inflation is likely to be within reasonable bounds.
But on top of this, BTC has Abrupt downside risks that normal currencies don't. Let's imagine a few:

Blockchain solutions are fundamentally inefficient

Blockchain was a genius idea. I still marvel at the initial white paper which is a great mix of economics and computer science.
That said, blockchain solutions make large tradeoffs in design because they assume almost no trust between parties. This leads to intentionally wasteful designs on a massive scale.
The main problem is that all transactions have to be validated by expensive computational operations and double checked by multiple parties. This means waste:
Many design problems can be mitigated by various improvements over BTC, but it remains that a simple database always works better than a blockchain if you can trust the parties to the transaction.
submitted by VodkaHaze to badeconomics [link] [comments]

New wiki entry: How to use a Bitcoin wallet (for newbies)

submitted by ripper2345 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Power of lightning .. at a glance.

Power of lightning .. at a glance. submitted by Leader92 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

How do I use my Bitcoin anonymously

I have some Bitcoin in my electrum wallet and I want to know how I can use it safely and anonymous in the dark net
submitted by 69420694206942069421 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

How to gift bitcoin to someone not in crypto?

Hey guys,
What's the best and safest way to gift bitcoin to someone who doesn't have a wallet yet. I was thinking about buying a ledger wallet and sending the bitcoins there and then gift the ledger. But that would mean the wallet is not that safe as i because i would have set it up for the person. Even though it's not in my intention to access the wallet once i gift it.

Is there a way to just give a brand new ledger and maybe some way of automatically getting the bitcoin once the wallet is set up? or maybe a smart contract kind of stuff?
submitted by yjoodhisty to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

bitcoin wallet What is Bitcoin? Bitcoin Explained Simply for Dummies ... How to set up a Blockchain wallet - Beginners Guide - YouTube Bitcoins Erklärung: In nur 12 Min. Bitcoin verstehen ... How to create a Bitcoin wallet (Blockchain)

Cryptocurrency wallets list will give you the conception of developed wallets in cryptocurrency world. There are the best cryptocurrency wallets for the storage of Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. Top bitcoin wallets to use. Crypto Wallets list [] Von daher sollten Sie andere Arten von Bitcoin Wallets verwenden. Andernfalls sollen sie Online Services sehr sorgfältig auswählen. Zusätzlich wird empfohlen, Zwei-Faktor Authentifizierung zu verwenden. Geringe Mengen für den täglichen Bedarf. Eine Bitcoin-Wallet ist wie eine Geldbörse mit Bargeld. Falls Sie nicht mehrere tausend Euro in Ihrem Geldbeutel aufbewahren, sollten Sie das auch ... Bitcoin Wallet ist eine Open-Source and freie Wallet-Implementierung für die Android Runtime, basierend auf bitcoinj. Die App benötigt mindestens Android 4.0 oder BlackBerry OS 10. Sie wurde am 7. März 2011 veröffentlicht.Mit Stand Juni 2015 wird sie von 800.000 Leuten genutzt. Paper wallets have just one Bitcoin address, leading to address reuse. Poor user experience. Dealing with raw private keys can be unintuitive and may lead to loss of funds if not managed properly. It is recommended that users of paper wallets understand how they function before using them as long-term funds storage. Bitcoin ATMs and paper wallets . Many Bitcoin ATMs use a paper-wallet-like ... From Bitcoin Wiki. Jump to: navigation, search. These are the services that hold your bitcoins in an eWallet. Some revenue-sharing sites such as BitcoinService use an eWallet simply as the bucket to hold bitcoins earned by the account holder. Others services allow bitcoins to be deposited as well as withdrawn. When storing your bitcoins with an eWallet your are trusting that the operator will ...

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bitcoin wallet

Our complete review, including our selection for the year's best bitcoin wallet, is exclusively available on Ezvid Wiki. Bitcoin wallets included in this wiki include the ledger duo, trezor safe ... Bitcoin für Anfänger einfach erklärt! [auf Deutsch] Bitcoin-Börse (erhalte 10€ in BTC) https://finanzfluss.de/go/bitcoin-boerse *📱 Sicheres Bitcoin-Wallet... EXPOSING JULIAN ASSANGE BITCOIN WALLETS! YouTube; Julian Assange Satoshi Connection & Wikileaks Bitcoin & Crypto Pioneer - Duration: 24:09. The Crypto Lark 21,643 views. 24:09. Anton Kreil ... Wallets in cryptocurrency work in a weird way. They also have some weird properties like: they can be created offline and be used directly. Whut? Let's see h... Choose your Bitcoin Wallet - An in-depth review of BitcoinQT, Electrum and Multibit - Duration: 27:32. Secure Your Wallet 24,298 views. 27:32. Multibit Review - which Bitcoin wallet?

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