Bank of England declares virtual currencies to be ...

2021 crypto market predictions

2021 crypto market predictions
📌 The famous bitcoin enthusiast and TV presenter Max Kaiser expects the price of the first cryptocurrency to rise to $ 28,000 soon.
📌 Popular cryptanalyst Plan B, using the Stock-to-Flow (S2F) model, has calculated that Bitcoin will reach this mark by the end of 2021.
📈 The main driver of growth for the cryptocurrency market was the halving of the bitcoin miners' reward. Most investors expect a sharp rise in prices in 2020-2021, which was associated with the general optimism in the market in the middle of the year.
🤵🏻 Many prominent figures in the financial world, such as the head of the Bank for International Settlements Augustine Carstens, the head of the Bank of England Mark Carney, the economist-historian from Harvard University Niall Ferguson, and the president of the brokerage company Euro Pacific Capital Inc. Peter Schiff, have changed their negative attitude towards cryptocurrencies to neutral or even positive.
💰 One way or another, this year the market expects a lot of events that should have a positive effect on the investment attractiveness of cryptocurrencies.
📈 Today, it is still difficult to predict the future of cryptocurrencies in the long term, but if traditional stock markets suffer in the near future, then the prices of cryptocurrencies as an alternative means of investment can skyrocket many times, and this should also be taken into account when financial planning for 2021 and subsequent years.
✅ Today Pyrk is one of the most technologically advanced projects in the industry, offering users the widest range of services. Starting from mining and ending with the possibility of private communication.
📢 Find out more about the PYRK project, its ecosystem, and the opportunities it offers on our website: https://pyrk.org
https://preview.redd.it/fc65j1her1v51.png?width=1200&format=png&auto=webp&s=ad24856df41f82782f30aa868ec33a0e0eeeed7d
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The CBDC Road to Practice-The Framework of LDF 2020

The CBDC Road to Practice-The Framework of LDF 2020
The CBDC Road To Practice——The Framework of LDF 2020
March 8, 2020 By JH( Lend0X Project Architect)
The Market Structure Analysis of CBDC
I. CBDC helps GDP growth
CBDC can be used as cash for commercial banks or as a medium for (government) bonds. The way in which assets are issued will have a huge impact on GDP growth. For commercial banks, the CBDC issued by the central bank is the source of assets. For customers, the products under the CBDC are the use of funds. Blockchain-based CBDC and bank account-based digital cash and banknotes are generally considered to have a huge difference in the contribution of GDP to quality, cost, and efficiency.
https://preview.redd.it/fji1rqdxequ41.png?width=411&format=png&auto=webp&s=10647fa76b42056f80527cfd5342a2f8c1d1df1a
Qualitatively
The Bank of England states in the 2019 study that the macroeconomic effects of issuing central bank digital currency (CBDC), the following three advantages of digital currency can increase interest-bearing central bank liabilities, and distributed ledgers can compete with bank deposits as a medium of exchange.
In the digital currency economy model 1. The model in the report matches the adjusted US currency issuance before the crisis, and we find that if the issuance of CBDC accounts for 30% of GDP, compared with government bonds, it may permanently increase GDP by 3%.
  1. Reduce real interest rates, reverse taxes and currency transaction costs.
  2. As a second monetary policy tool, countercyclical CBDC price or quantity rules can greatly improve the ability of the central bank to stabilize the business cycle.
Cost
II. The issuing system and payment structure of CBDC
The BIS research report pointed out that CBDC has many open questions, such as whether they should be retail or wholesale? Directly or indirectly to consumers? Account-based or token-based? Based on distributed ledgers, a centralized model or a hybrid model? How does CBDC pay across borders?
https://preview.redd.it/6dczkw83fqu41.png?width=249&format=png&auto=webp&s=3c9f31f371ccbeab21d634b6a01ee0bd5a8b0f08
Of the three issuance systems (indirect, direct, and hybrid), CBDC can only be issued directly by the central bank. In The first type of indirect issuance structure,the CBDC is the indirect architecture ,and is done indirectly. ICBDC in the hands of consumers (such as the digital currency issued by the 4 largest state-owned commercial banks in DCEP) represents commercial banks (such as the 4 largest state-owned commercial banks) debt.
In the second type of direct and third type of mixed issuance structure, consumers are creditors of the central bank. In the direct CBDC model (type 2), the central bank processes all payments in real time and therefore maintains a record of all retail assets. The hybrid CBDC model is an intermediate solution where the consumer is a creditor of the central bank, but real-time payments are handled by the intermediary, and the central bank keeps copies of all retail
CBDCs in order to transfer them from one payment service provider to another in the event of a technical failure.
In terms of efficiency
Three payment architecture architectures allow account-based or token-based access. Although its DCEP digital currency is not a token in the blockchain, it is similar to the token in blockchain in key features such as non-double spending, anonymity, non-forgeability, security, transferability, separability, and programmability. Therefore, DCEP still belongs to the Token paradigm, not the account paradigm.
All four combinations are possible for any CBDC architecture (indirect, direct or hybrid) whatever the payment structure is based on the centralization or centralization mode, the account or token mode of blockchain smart contract account . But in different structures, central banks, commercial banks, and the private sector operate different parts of the infrastructure.
At present, the DCEP issuance structure adopts a two-tier structure, and its payment system——four major state-owned commercial
banks issuing four ICDBC tokens. Its technical architecture features are consistent with the first indirect distribution method. Because DCEP is positioned as digital cash (M0 cash) and the central bank's DCEP supports offline mobile payment, considering its huge payment transactions, a centralized account system for DCEP payment methods is essential. Offline Payment methods access to mobile wallets based on tokens are also essential for commercial banks.

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LDF Central Bank Digital Currency CBDC Project Development
At present, the technical framework of the CBDC and the selection of infrastructure are divided into the R & D and cooperation of domestic application planning DCEP application scenarios; its overseas expansion goal supports the development of the “Belt and Road” digital asset ecosystem. DCEP adopts a double-layer system of commercial banks and central banks to adapt to the existing currency
systems of sovereign countries in the world. China, as a currency issuing country, has strong economic strength and basic conditions necessary for world currencies. At the same time, DCEP can also save the issued funds, calculate the inflation rate and other macroeconomic indicators more accurately, better curb illegal activities such as money laundering and terrorist financing, and facilitate foreign exchange circulation worldwide.
1. LDF——the combination of CBDC program and token economy
Only after answering questions such as the openness of CBDC currency itself, can we solve how the application of multiple blockchain industries such as LDF digital asset issuance platform, digital asset support bond platform, and lending and other CBDC currency "product traceability", "digital identity authentication", "judicial depository", "secure communication"and other basic applications, these LDFs are an important direction for exploring blockchain applications.
2.Select the most widely used blockchain technology as the basic platform
LDF introduced CBDC to use blockchain technology because it is the most mature landing foundation platform. It has the advantages of decentralization, openness, autonomy, anonymity, and tamper resistance. It can make the entire system information highly transparent, its data stability and the reliability is extremely high, which solves the point-to-point trust problem and can reduce transaction and operating costs. At present, the underlying technologies of mainstream digital assets such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, and USDT are all blockchain technologies. At the same time, the application scenarios of the blockchain not only include digital currency, but also include many fields such as "product traceability", "digital identity authentication", "judicial depository", "secure communication" and so on.
3.Interpretation of DCEP and selection of LDF blockchain technology architecture
·DCEP does not use a real blockchain like Libra, but may use a centralized ledger based on the UTXO (Unspent Transaction Output) model, and it still belongs to the Token paradigm. This centralized ledger reflects the digital currency issuance and registration system maintained by the central bank. It does not need to run consensus algorithms and will not be subject to the performance bottleneck of the blockchain. The blockchain may be used for the definitive registration of digital currencies and occupy a subsidiary position.

https://preview.redd.it/655gvo1ofqu41.png?width=273&format=png&auto=webp&s=eaf1da72ef45db094067e5523b1a92cc9a0f71c1
·Users need to use DCEP wallet. The core of the wallet is a pair of public and private keys. The public key is also the address, where the digital certificate of RMB is stored. This digital certificate is not a token in the blockchain in the complete sense, but it is consistent with the Token in many key features, and it is based on 100% RMB reserve. Users can initiate transfer transactions between addresses through the wallet private key. The transfer transaction is recorded
directly in the centralized ledger by the central bank. In this way, DCEP implements account loose coupling and controlled anonymity.
·Although DCEP is a currency tool, the third-party payment is mainly a payment tool after "disconnecting directly", but there are many similarities between the two. If DCEP is good enough in terms of technical efficiency and business development, and from the perspective of users, third-party payments can bring the same experience after DCEP and "disconnect directly". Therefore, DCEP has a mutual substitution relationship with third-party payment in the application after “disconnecting directly”.
·DCEP will have a tightening effect on M2, and M2 tightening reflects the contraction of the banking system to a certain extent. Digital currency does not pay interest, and the People's Bank of China has no plan to completely replace cash with DCEP, so DCEP will not constitute a new monetary policy tool. DCEP has strong policy implications for central bank monitoring of capital flows, as well as anti-money laundering, anti-terrorist financing and anti-tax evasion. Therefore, the supervisory function of DCEP exceeds that of monetary policy.
·The impact of DCEP on RMB internationalization is mainly reflected in cross-border payments based on digital currencies. Although cross-border payments including DCEP, can promote RMB internationalization, cross-border payment is only a necessary condition for RMB internationalization, not a sufficient one. The internationalization of the RMB is inseparable from a series of institutional arrangements.
4.The effectiveness of digital currencies in the LDF framework
CBDC is positioned as digital cash or currency under the LDF framework, and the remaining various tokens, cryptocurrencies, and stablecoins are treated as digital assets. The application platforms involved in LDF (asset mortgage bond platform, digital asset issuance platform, and lending). The underlying assets of LDF are part of the digital asset equity. The reason why LDF uses CBDC and stable currency as currency is due to ·LDF framework links three financial ecosystems ·CBDC has the characteristics of currency transaction, accounting unit and value storage have been verified
·Stablecoins can be used as a payment tool for token economic platforms, not currencies
The stable currency selected by LDF should effectively play the payment function of the currency, and meet the requirements of the following LDF framework: ·Must be universally accepted ·Must be easy to standardize in order to determine its value
Due to the characteristics of DvP (payment is settlement) based on blockchain technology, LDF's smart contracts have the characteristics of decentralized intermediaries, such as the function of asset account contracts partially replacing account settlement; the asset pool contract replacing SPV, and the cash flow contract replacing assets Payment intermediary The digital currency selected as an LDF that meets the above standards is very important for the effectiveness of the LDF framework. Otherwise, the platform built by the LDF framework will not be able to achieve the capabilities of distributed ledgers and DAO organizations.
LDF regulatory compliance
LDF chooses CBDC (DCEP) as the construction of digital asset transaction payment platform, which has the characteristics of DvP (asset payment is settlement). It supervises compliance with the selection of digital currencies that support smart contract accounts and trading platforms (anti-money laundering and anti-terrorist financing) has a decisive role.
DCEP takes the form of loosely coupled accounts to achieve controlled anonymity. The current electronic payment methods, such as bank cards and third-party payment platforms, all use the method of tightly coupling accounts, that is, funds must be transferred through real-name bank accounts. But With the improvement of people's awareness of information security, electronic payment cannot meet people's demand for anonymous payment. The digital currency of the central bank adopts the form of loosely coupled accounts, enabling asset transfers without the need for bank accounts, so as to achieve controllable anonymity.
Unlike Bitcoin's complete anonymity, the central bank has the right to obtain the transaction data within the legal scope, and the source
of digital currency can be traced through big data analysis, while other commercial banks and merchants cannot obtain relevant information. This mechanism, while protecting data security and citizen privacy, also enables illegal activities such as money laundering to be effectively supervised.
Association of LDF's DAO Autonomous Economic Model with CBDC
The direct DCB (such as DCEP) or LIBRA of the LDF token can quantify the value of DAO / DAE through a certain transformation and analysis, and predict its future long-term growth rate and the problems to be solved by the economic model, the solution path adopted, and the overall structure design, technological innovation, team composition, development vision and roadmap.
https://preview.redd.it/txg4mq0sfqu41.png?width=269&format=png&auto=webp&s=a69b919cf43c9115f43525f8d851ee1e4fbf5a1f
·The LDF economic model transplants the estimation model of the asset value of the general economic system to DAO 2.0 organization and market management, so as to establish a unified evaluation system for the value generated by the distributed autonomous economy (DAE). The endogenous economic growth model considers important parameters such as savings rate, population growth rate, and technological progress as endogenous variables. The long-term growth rate of the economy can be determined by the interior of the model. Moreover, the LDF economic model takes the number of tokens, nodes, and technical inputs of the distributed organization as similar parameters. The CBDC (such as DCEP) or LIBRA directly targeted by the token can quantify the value of DAO / DAE through certain transformation and analysis and predict its long-term growth rate in the future.
·In response to the special needs of transactions and asset on-chain in the blockchain field, the LDF economic model has developed a DAE (Decentralized Autonomous Economic) protocol group specifically designed to eliminate various pain points of decentralization in the blockchain field, and has developed corresponding LDF DAO DAPP, these agreements include: ·Issuance and trading of tokens based on smart contracts ·Distributed order submission and matching ·Transaction interest rate and mortgage method based on automatic discovery mechanism
Therefore, whether it is a community member, an investor, or a blockchain project developer that develops applications on the LDF economic model, it can use the distributed rules, consensus mechanisms, infrastructure, and smart contracts provided by it to achieve the following purposes:
·Encrypted token asset transaction and circulation based on community autonomy ·Issue of new LDF tokens ·Construction, collaboration, management, voting, and decision- making of specific encryption token communities
·Develop a smart contract system for the dual factors of community node rights and workload ·Customized incentive standards for nodes with different interests
Welcome to discuss with the author of this article, please contact via email:[email protected]
submitted by Lend0x to u/Lend0x [link] [comments]

Best General RenVM Questions of March 2020

Best General RenVM Questions of March 2020

\These questions are sourced directly from Telegram*

Q: How do I shutdown my Chaosnet Darknode? A: Please follow these directions: https://docs.renproject.io/chaosnet/chaosnet-darknode/untitled-3

Q: Can I run a Chaosnet Darknode and Mainnet Darknode at the same time (on the same computer). A: No, if you want to do that you’ll have to run them on separate computers.

Q: You mentioned DCEP in your latest piece and "12 App Ideas", but it's going to run on a centralized private network. The Bank of England also just released a report on how they're thinking about their CBDC and DLT/centralization, and stress that a DLT could add resilience, but there's also no reason a currency couldn't be more centralized. The Block reported that other central banks (like the EU and Singapore) are considering third-party chains like Corda. Can you comment on which CBDC designs may or may not be compatible with RZL? You previously said "RZL sMPC provides ECDSA signatures because that’s what it is used by Ethereum, Bitcoin, etc. Whatever solution they come up with, will be the solution that RZL has to be upgraded to use (the whole point of RenVM is not to tell other chains how to do things, and still provide interop; this means waiting on them to define their solution and then working with that)." So, what does centralization mean for RZL, and how can we think about compatibility between these designs on the technical side?
A: The topic of centralisation in interoperability comes down to the compounding effect of using multiple networks. Put another way “you’re only as decentralised as your most centralised component”. While there are nuances to this, the core idea rings true.
RenVM can be used to interoperate many different kinds of chains (anything using ECDSA, or naturally supporting lively threshold signatures) is a candidate to be included in RenVM. However, a centralised currency that has been bridged to a decentralised chain is not decentralised. The centralised entity that controls the currency might say “nothing transferred to/from this other chain will be honoured”. That’s a risk that you take with centralised currencies (take a look at the T&Cs for USDC for example).
The benefit of RenVM in these instances is to become a standard. Short-term, RenVM brings interoperability to some core chains. Medium-term, it expands that to other more interesting chains based on community demands. Long-term, it becomes the standard for how to implement interop. For example: you create a new chain and don’t worry about interop explicitly because you know RenVM will have your back. For centralised currencies this is still advantageous, because the issuing entity only has to manage one chain (theirs) but can still get their currency onto other chains/ecosystems.
From a technical perspective, the Darknodes just have to be willing to adopt the chain/currency.

Q: dApps will have their own risk tolerances for centralized assets. Eg USDC was a bigger deal for MakerDAO than Uniswap. If CBDC liquidity were suddenly bridgeable, some dApps would be more eager to adopt it than others - even despite the risks - because they provide native liquidity and can be used to store/hedge in it without cashing it out. My question is more technical as it relates to RenVM as the "Universal Stablecoin Converter". You sound convinced that RenVM can bridge Libra, DCEP, maybe other CBDCs in the future, but I'm skeptical how RenVM works with account-based currencies. (1) Are we even sure of DCEP's underlying design and whether it or other CBDCs even plan to use digital signatures? And (2) wouldn't RenVM need a KYC-approved account to even get an address on these chains? It seems like DCEP would have to go through a Chinese Circle, who would just issue an ERC20.
A: As far as underlying blockchain technology goes (eg the maths of it) I don’t see there being any issues. Until we know more about whether or not KYCd addresses are required (and if they are, how they work), then I can’t specifically comment on that. However, it is more than possible not to require RenVM to be KYCd (just like you can’t “KYC Ethereum”) and instead move that requirement to addresses on the host blockchain (eg KYC Ethereum addresses for receiving the cross-chain asset). Whether this happens or not would ultimately be up to whether the issuer wanted interoperability to be possible.

Q: In that scenario, how would RenVM even receive the funds to be transferred to the KYC'd Ethereum address? For Alice to send DCEP to Bob's KYC'd Ethereum address, RenVM would need a DCEP address of its own, no?
A: Again, this is impossible to say for certain without knowing the implementation of the origin chain. You could whitelist known RenVM scripts (by looking at their form, like RenVM itself does on Bitcoin). But mostly likely, these systems will have some level of smart contract capabilities and this allows very flexible control. You can just whitelist the smart contract address that RenVM watches for cross-chain events. In origin chains with smart contracts, the smart contract holds the funds (and the keys the smart contract uses to authorise spends are handled as business logic). So there isn’t really a “RenVM public address” in the same sense that there is in Bitcoin.
Q: The disbonding period for Darknodes seem long, what happens if there is a bug?
A: It’s actually good for the network to have a long disbonding period in the face of a bug. If people were able to panic sell, then not only would the bug cause potential security issues, but so too would a mass exodus of Darknodes from the network.
Having time to fix the bug means that Darknodes may as well stick around and continue securing the network as best they can. Because their REN is at stake (as you put it) they’re incentivised to take any of the recommended actions and update their nodes as necessary.
This is also why it’s critical for the Greycore to exist in the early days of the network and why we are rolling out SubZero the way that we are. If such a bug becomes apparent (more likely in the early days than the later days), then the Greycore has a chance to react to it (the specifics of which would of course depend on the specifics of the bug). This becomes harder and slower as the network becomes more decentralised over time.
Not mcap, but the price of bonded Ren. Furthermore, the price will be determined by how much fees darknodes have collected. BTW, loongy could you unveil based on what profits ratio/apr the price will be calculated?
This is up to the Darknodes to governance softly. This means there isn’t a need for an explicit oracle. Darknodes assess L vs R individually and vote to increase fees to drive L down and drive R up. L is driven down by continue fees, whereas R is driven up by minting/burning fees.

Q: How do you think renvm would perform on a day like today when even cexs are stretched. Would the system be able to keep up?
A: This will really depend on the number of shards that RenVM is operating. Shards operate in parallel so more shards = more processing power.

Q: The main limiting factor is the speed of the underlying chain, rather than RenVM?
A: That’s generally the case. Bitcoin peaks at about 7 TPS so as long as we are faster than this, any extra TPS is “wasted”. And you actually don’t want to be faster than you have to be. This lets you drop hardware requirements, and lowering the cost of running a Darknode. This has two nice effects: (a) being an operator generates more profit because costs are lower, and (b) it’s more accessible to more people because it’s a little cheaper to get started (albeit this is minor).

Q: Just getting caught up on governance, but what about: unbonded REN = 1 vote, bonded REN = (1 vote + time_served). That'd be > decentralization of Darknodes alone, an added incentive to be registered, and counter exchanges wielding too much control.
A: You could also have different decaying rates. For example, assuming that REN holders have to vote by “backing” the vote of Darknodes:
Let X be the amount of REN used to voted, backed behind a Darknode and bonded for T time.
Let Y be the amount of time a Darknode has been active for.
Voting power of the Darknode could = Sqrt(Y) * Log(X + T)
Log(1,000,000,000) = ~21 so if you had every REN bonded behind you, your voting power would only be 21x the voting power of other nodes. This would force whales to either run Darknodes for a while and contribute actively to the ecosystem (or lock up their REN for an extended period for addition voting power), and would force exchanges to spread their voting out over many different nodes (giving power back to those running nodes). Obviously the exchange could just run lots of Darknodes, but they would have to do this over a long period of time (not feasible, because people need to be able to withdraw their REN).

Q: Like having superdelegates, i.e, nodes trusted by the community with higher voting power? Maybe like council nodes
A: Well, this is essentially what the Greycore is. Darknodes that have been voted in by the community to act as a secondary signature on everything. (And, interestingly enough, you could vote out all members to remove the core entirely.)

Q: Think the expensive ren is a security feature as well. So, doubt this would impact security potentially? I don’t know. I wouldn’t vote to cut my earnings by 40% for example lol
A: It can lead to centralisation over time though. If 100K REN becomes prohibitively expensive, then you will only see people running Darknodes that can afford a large upfront capital investment. In the mid/long-term this can have adverse effects on the trust in the system. It’s important that people “external” to the system (non-Darknodes) can get themselves into the system. Allowing non-Darknodes to have some governance (even if it’s not overall things) would be critical to this.

Q: That darknode option sounds very interesting although it could get more centralized as the price of 100k Ren rises.For instance dark nodes may not want to vote to lower the threshold from 100k to 50k once Ren gets too expensive.
A: A great point. And one of the reasons it would be ideal to be able to alter those parameters without just the Darknodes voting. Otherwise, you definitely risk long-term centralisation.

Q: BTC is deposited into a native BTC address, but who controls this address (where/how is this address’s private key stored)?
A: This is precisely the magic behind RenVM. RenVM uses an MPC algorithm to generate the controlling private key. No one ever sees this private key, and no one can sign things with it without consensus from everyone else.
submitted by RENProtocol to RenProject [link] [comments]

Pure PoW is DEAD

When I was 16, camping out in an airport waiting to board my first International flight to England I began chatting with a U.S. Airforce pilot who had camped up beside my group. Asking him what it was like to fly at mach speeds he replied in a very sober expression, “you have to be alert at all times. You see a mountain or some obstacle appear on the horizon, you better adjust now or you’re going to slam into it.” Maybe he was adding dramatic effect, I’ve never flown at mach speeds at low altitudes, but I never forgot it and the analogy it carries...especially so fitting for technology and progress.
This past week in cryptocurrency shined an important (and hopefully sobering) light on a “mountain” that appeared on our industries horizon...and has actually been visible to us for far too long already: Pure Proof of Work’s inevitable fate.
By pure, I mean consensus algorithms that use nothing but the original Bitcoin proof of work consensus model without updates or algorithm changes to address its weaknesses relative to the ever expanding technology used to hash it. This means Bitcoin, today’s Ethereum, Zcash, Ethereum Classic, and other coins that comprise most of the value in the top 100 cryptocurrencies. The original, unmodified form of basic PoW that most of these coins use is dead. This demise may not be fully appreciated today, but as sure as a mach-speed plane, unable to turn in time is doomed to collide with a mountain in its path, these blockchains must soon either accept their lack of security in today’s world or fork and upgrade to more effective solutions, some of which have been pioneered by smaller projects that don’t command as much hash power and therefore already had to face and address their need for extra security.
I believe it’s actually irresponsible to deny it and assume economics, hash power, market, sentiment or even self-preservation of network participants will be protection enough.
Because Bitcoin is the biggest (by market cap) of the pure PoW cryptocurrencies in existence today, I’ll establish my arguments using BTC, but the same goes for all pure PoW cryptos.
1 - Economics Bitcoin is often defended because it has the largest market cap of all cryptocurrencies and commands most of the capable hash worldwide that might be used to attack it. It is a “store of value” with proponents of this argument relying on few factors, limited supply combined with sentiment being one of the most prominent. They believe that this limited supply will inevitably drive the price up and, somehow, bitcoin will remain unequivocally secured and established.
Bitcoin has serious limitations in its adherence to the pure PoW model, and though the realities of competition has kept it free from major 51% attacks, I predict that it’s only a matter of time before it cannot command the majority of hash power that may be used to attack it. Lack of acceptance that consensus must use more than just PoW, even when checkpoints are an already accepted as necessary augmentation, leaves Bitcoin open to a catastrophic failure at some point in the future, which would affect the short term value of every cryptocurrency, even those that have addressed and solved the most glaring security challenges of a pure PoW model. Some projects have developed and are now using more advanced, more secure technology than pure PoW, and still remain fully decentralized. This is now an area where altcoins are leading, as they fill the security vacuum. With altcoins also having smart contracts and advanced currency capabilities and being potential stores of value as well, the landscape visible on the horizon in front of us looks quite different from the smooth sailing we have seen behind us with respect to projects relying on PoW and PoW alone. I’m not suggesting that Bitcoin should try to be everything that every other altcoin is becoming, but to rely on its single function as an argument of it’s security and sustainability while refraining from important technical advancements to secure its future, is foolish. The calculator is an important, valuable, and useful tool, yet people understood that it should be part of a more multifunction solution and now carry one around inside their smartphone.
The argument supporting Bitcoin’s status quo as a pure PoW blockchain and claiming it is perfect as is for whatever particular reason, is often combined with the following and includes an argument resting on self-preservation. In other words, why would anyone be nefarious and ruin their own wealth and store of value given the enormous hash power and cost it would take to attack Bitcoin? Bitcoin, then, relies on theoretical protection with idealistic boundaries.
2 - Hash Power and Hardware Capabilities This is sort of a 2 in 1 argument. Bitcoin is considered by many, the most secure blockchain in terms of pure hash power. In other words, more hash power is directed at Bitcoin than any other cryptocurrency and, there are limits to sha256d hashing speeds, economically and in hardware capabilities therefore it would be too expensive to attack Bitcoin and by the same token, make no sense to the attacker to do any wrong in this case (self preservation).
To assume technology, A: is limited to what we know now and B: will remain within these bounds for long, is just ignorant. What happens when sha256d can be hashed faster, when hardware innovations change the cost and capabilities involved? How do we know it isn’t possible now? What’s more, will Bitcoin always hold its position as the “special” coin due to its leading network hashpower that simply will never experience a world where there is enough available hash power from other sources to use for a 51% attack? The argument that Bitcoin will remain special is not an argument that its technology can protect it, especially with its roots as a project that grew from a figurative David with its sights set on the Goliath of the banking industry.
Look at the enormous hash power presently directed at Bitcoin and ask, what happens if that hash power is suddenly directed at another, less special coin, as part of a 51% attack? Is that other coin ready to defend in some way against that event? And how does this then impact Bitcoin? I would submit that at the end of the analysis, if the only thing protecting Bitcoin and its current technology from being doublespent to death is the fact that it is uniquely “special” because it is biggest, then as it unarguably becomes centralized among the largest Bitcoin participants and/or institutions, in an ironic way, refusal to improve technology could create exactly the systemic centralization that Satoshi was trying to prevent.
Even so, the idea that Bitcoin can always and forever remain the largest cryptocurrency and “special” as such, ignores historical realities that teach us differently. Remember “alta-vista”, the pre-Google winner of the search engine wars? Remember AOL? MySpace? The economics of bitcoin as people understand them today, the economics involved in mining pure PoW, the sentiment and value assigned to bitcoin and any coin now, can change as rapidly as Bitcoin emerged, even unexpectedly to the masses.
The ETC attack of only a few days ago just put the entire Cryptocurrency industry on notice. Any project without an active solution in place of immunity or at least a defense against a 51% hash attack is in trouble. I would argue that even though it will likely still take some time for market dynamics to enable an attacker to reasonably mount a 51% attack on the largest pure PoW cryptocurrency, Bitcoin, without new defense against such an attack, it is a question of when, not if.
The other day I identified a small handful of projects that have developed and are using defenses against 51% hash attacks, only one of which has a provable solution of hash attack immunity in place.
It’s important to note, any solution that can be seen as real progress over the Bitcoin protocol must be one that is decentralized. While some cryptocurrencies solve the 51% hash attack problem with a fully centralized approach, that truly misses the point of the original Bitcoin paper. Centralized databases are a different technology altogether, and implementing a centralized solution to a decentralized technology changes it entirely, in which case it’s more akin to just trying to brand your centralized database with the latest catch phrases to gain attention, support or funding.
Here’s a short list I identified of projects who have developed a defense or a complete solution to 51% hash attacks. To my knowledge, all of these solutions are now active on the respective project main networks, with the exception of Litecoin Cash, which is running on testnet at this time.:
As an industry, we need to face the fact that pure PoW is an incomplete solution to decentralized blockchain security in this age of cheap, fungible compute power. Pure PoW-only systems must evolve, and it’s time we look beyond to understand what are the best solutions that have evolved to address that fact. If you are part of a crypto project, no matter how large, you ignore the notice provided by the ETC attack at your own peril and the peril of your network participants.
My request is this… if you know of a project with a 51% hash attack solution, please provide some information below. If you totally disagree with the main point of this post, please provide a reasoned argument to prove me wrong or explain why pure PoW systems will remain viable indefinitely. As an industry, it’s time we see the blunt reality and apply innovation. Those who don’t will be reduced to interesting historical experiments.
submitted by ethadvisor to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Pure PoW is DEAD

When I was 16, camping out in an airport waiting to board my first International flight to England I began chatting with a U.S. Airforce pilot who had camped up beside my group. Asking him what it was like to fly at mach speeds he replied in a very sober expression, “you have to be alert at all times. You see a mountain or some obstacle appear on the horizon, you better adjust now or you’re going to slam into it.” Maybe he was adding dramatic effect, I’ve never flown at mach speeds at low altitudes, but I never forgot it and the analogy it carries...especially so fitting for technology and progress.
This past week in cryptocurrency shined an important (and hopefully sobering) light on a “mountain” that appeared on our industries horizon...and has actually been visible to us for far too long already: Pure Proof of Work’s inevitable fate.
By pure, I mean consensus algorithms that use nothing but the original Bitcoin proof of work consensus model without updates or algorithm changes to address its weaknesses relative to the ever expanding technology used to hash it. This means Bitcoin, today’s Ethereum, Zcash, Ethereum Classic, and other coins that comprise most of the value in the top 100 cryptocurrencies. The original, unmodified form of basic PoW that most of these coins use is dead. This demise may not be fully appreciated today, but as sure as a mach-speed plane, unable to turn in time is doomed to collide with a mountain in its path, these blockchains must soon either accept their lack of security in today’s world or fork and upgrade to more effective solutions, some of which have been pioneered by smaller projects that don’t command as much hash power and therefore already had to face and address their need for extra security.
I believe it’s actually irresponsible to deny it and assume economics, hash power, market, sentiment or even self-preservation of network participants will be protection enough.
Because Bitcoin is the biggest (by market cap) of the pure PoW cryptocurrencies in existence today, I’ll establish my arguments using BTC, but the same goes for all pure PoW cryptos.
1 - Economics Bitcoin is often defended because it has the largest market cap of all cryptocurrencies and commands most of the capable hash worldwide that might be used to attack it. It is a “store of value” with proponents of this argument relying on few factors, limited supply combined with sentiment being one of the most prominent. They believe that this limited supply will inevitably drive the price up and, somehow, bitcoin will remain unequivocally secured and established.
Bitcoin has serious limitations in its adherence to the pure PoW model, and though the realities of competition has kept it free from major 51% attacks, I predict that it’s only a matter of time before it cannot command the majority of hash power that may be used to attack it. Lack of acceptance that consensus must use more than just PoW, even when checkpoints are an already accepted as necessary augmentation, leaves Bitcoin open to a catastrophic failure at some point in the future, which would affect the short term value of every cryptocurrency, even those that have addressed and solved the most glaring security challenges of a pure PoW model. Some projects have developed and are now using more advanced, more secure technology than pure PoW, and still remain fully decentralized. This is now an area where altcoins are leading, as they fill the security vacuum. With altcoins also having smart contracts and advanced currency capabilities and being potential stores of value as well, the landscape visible on the horizon in front of us looks quite different from the smooth sailing we have seen behind us with respect to projects relying on PoW and PoW alone. I’m not suggesting that Bitcoin should try to be everything that every other altcoin is becoming, but to rely on its single function as an argument of it’s security and sustainability while refraining from important technical advancements to secure its future, is foolish. The calculator is an important, valuable, and useful tool, yet people understood that it should be part of a more multifunction solution and now carry one around inside their smartphone.
The argument supporting Bitcoin’s status quo as a pure PoW blockchain and claiming it is perfect as is for whatever particular reason, is often combined with the following and includes an argument resting on self-preservation. In other words, why would anyone be nefarious and ruin their own wealth and store of value given the enormous hash power and cost it would take to attack Bitcoin? Bitcoin, then, relies on theoretical protection with idealistic boundaries.
2 - Hash Power and Hardware Capabilities This is sort of a 2 in 1 argument. Bitcoin is considered by many, the most secure blockchain in terms of pure hash power. In other words, more hash power is directed at Bitcoin than any other cryptocurrency and, there are limits to sha256d hashing speeds, economically and in hardware capabilities therefore it would be too expensive to attack Bitcoin and by the same token, make no sense to the attacker to do any wrong in this case (self preservation).
To assume technology, A: is limited to what we know now and B: will remain within these bounds for long, is just ignorant. What happens when sha256d can be hashed faster, when hardware innovations change the cost and capabilities involved? How do we know it isn’t possible now? What’s more, will Bitcoin always hold its position as the “special” coin due to its leading network hashpower that simply will never experience a world where there is enough available hash power from other sources to use for a 51% attack? The argument that Bitcoin will remain special is not an argument that its technology can protect it, especially with its roots as a project that grew from a figurative David with its sights set on the Goliath of the banking industry.
Look at the enormous hash power presently directed at Bitcoin and ask, what happens if that hash power is suddenly directed at another, less special coin, as part of a 51% attack? Is that other coin ready to defend in some way against that event? And how does this then impact Bitcoin? I would submit that at the end of the analysis, if the only thing protecting Bitcoin and its current technology from being doublespent to death is the fact that it is uniquely “special” because it is biggest, then as it unarguably becomes centralized among the largest Bitcoin participants and/or institutions, in an ironic way, refusal to improve technology could create exactly the systemic centralization that Satoshi was trying to prevent.
Even so, the idea that Bitcoin can always and forever remain the largest cryptocurrency and “special” as such, ignores historical realities that teach us differently. Remember “alta-vista”, the pre-Google winner of the search engine wars? Remember AOL? MySpace? The economics of bitcoin as people understand them today, the economics involved in mining pure PoW, the sentiment and value assigned to bitcoin and any coin now, can change as rapidly as Bitcoin emerged, even unexpectedly to the masses.
The ETC attack of only a few days ago just put the entire Cryptocurrency industry on notice. Any project without an active solution in place of immunity or at least a defense against a 51% hash attack is in trouble. I would argue that even though it will likely still take some time for market dynamics to enable an attacker to reasonably mount a 51% attack on the largest pure PoW cryptocurrency, Bitcoin, without new defense against such an attack, it is a question of when, not if.
The other day I identified a small handful of projects that have developed and are using defenses against 51% hash attacks, only one of which has a provable solution of hash attack immunity in place.
It’s important to note, any solution that can be seen as real progress over the Bitcoin protocol must be one that is decentralized. While some cryptocurrencies solve the 51% hash attack problem with a fully centralized approach, that truly misses the point of the original Bitcoin paper. Centralized databases are a different technology altogether, and implementing a centralized solution to a decentralized technology changes it entirely, in which case it’s more akin to just trying to brand your centralized database with the latest catch phrases to gain attention, support or funding.
Here’s a short list I identified of projects who have developed a defense or a complete solution to 51% hash attacks. To my knowledge, all of these solutions are now active on the respective project main networks, with the exception of Litecoin Cash, which is running on testnet at this time.:
As an industry, we need to face the fact that pure PoW is an incomplete solution to decentralized blockchain security in this age of cheap, fungible compute power. Pure PoW-only systems must evolve, and it’s time we look beyond to understand what are the best solutions that have evolved to address that fact. If you are part of a crypto project, no matter how large, you ignore the notice provided by the ETC attack at your own peril and the peril of your network participants.
My request is this… if you know of a project with a 51% hash attack solution, please provide some information below. If you totally disagree with the main point of this post, please provide a reasoned argument to prove me wrong or explain why pure PoW systems will remain viable indefinitely. As an industry, it’s time we see the blunt reality and apply innovation. Those who don’t will be reduced to interesting historical experiments.
submitted by ethadvisor to CryptoTechnology [link] [comments]

Daily analysis of cryptocurrencies 20191015(Market index 39 — Fear state)

Daily analysis of cryptocurrencies 20191015(Market index 39 — Fear state)

https://preview.redd.it/362pt9cbyos31.jpg?width=1200&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=1bd6935d0b9f27bc215a7ceb9a4dd14a6b4c502c

Indian Supreme Court Postpones Crypto Case To November The Supreme Court of India on Oct 15 once again postponed hearing the case against the crypto banking restrictions by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). The central bank has replied to crypto exchanges’ representation as directed by the court, which was supposed to resume hearing the case on Oct 15.
Ripple Battles Crypto FUD: ‘99.9% Of All XRP Trading, We Have Nothing To Do With’ Ripple CEO Brad Garlinghouse says the San Francisco startup has dramatically reduced the amount of XRP it’s selling over-the-counter. Each day, Ripple calculates the total amount of XRP sold across all exchanges based on volume data from CryptoCompare. It then sells 10 basis points of that total volume or 0.10% of its own XRP. “One of the things that we actually agree with is, we try to have a constructive way to engage the market by saying, ‘We’re going to sell OTC and we’re going to sell programmatically at ten basis points of daily market activity’ … Every day Ripple is 10 basis points of the overall XRP volume. If there’s $100 million worth of daily volume before Ripple does anything, Ripple would be $100,000 in sales. 99.9% of all XRP trading, we have nothing to do with,” he stated.
Bank Of England Governor: Libra May Be An Alternative To The UK Payment System Bank of England Governor Mark Carney states that Facebook’s cryptocurrency Libra may be an alternative to the payment system in the UK since the latter is not good enough, Jin10.com reports on Oct 15.
CMCC, UnionPay And Others Announce The Formal Test Of Blockchain Service Network (BSN) China National Information Center, China Mobile Communications Group (CMCC) and China UnionPay jointly announced the formal test of blockchain service network (BSN) designed and built by six institutions in Beijing. BSN is top-level planned by China National Information Center and independently developed and successfully put into practice by China UnionPay and CMCC adopting the relevant blockchain technology and existing network resources and data centers. It is a nation-wide blockchain service infrastructure platform that spans public networks, regions and institutions in China.

Encrypted project calendar(October 15, 2019)

RUFF/RUFF Token: Ruff will end the three-month early bird program on October 15th KAT/Kambria: Kambria (KAT) exchanges ERC20 KAT for a 10% bonus on BEP2 KAT-7BB, and the token exchange reward will end on October 15. BTC/Bitcoin: The Blockchain Technology Investment Summit (CIS) will be held in Los Angeles from October 15th to 16th. OTOCASH (OTO): 15 October 2019 Escodex Shutdown “ All OTO HOLDERs who have assets on ESCODEX EXCHANGE to immediately withdraw your assets before October 15th, 2019 4:00 PM” (CRYPTO): 15 October 2019 Hard Fork Summit Hard Fork Summit 2019 by TNW . “Where finance and business meets tech.” Amsterdam, October 15–17. Cardano (ADA): 15 October 2019 NYC Meetup “Next week on October 15th Nathan Kaiser, Chairperson of the Cardano Foundation, will be in attendance to meet community members in NYC FunFair (FUN): 15 October 2019 Marketing AMA “The FunFair Marketing AMA… will be held on Tuesday the 15th of October at 2pm in the Live team chat channel on Discord Ark (ARK): 15 October 2019 ARK Core v2.6 on Devnet “We are very excited to announce #ARK Core v2.6 will be launching on #Devnet, October 15th, 2019! “ DigiByte (DGB): 15 October 2019 BitMart Listing DigiByte (DGB) will be listed on BitMart Exchange on October 15, 2019. The following trading pair will be available: DGB/BTC. ThoreNext (THX): 15 October 2019 Staking Goes Live “Staking live from 15 OCT 2019.”

Encrypted project calendar(October 16, 2019)

BTC/Bitcoin: The 2019 Blockchain Life Summit will be held in Moscow, Russia from October 16th to 17th. MIOTA/IOTA: IOTA (MIOTA) IOTA will host a community event on the theme of “Technology Problem Solving and Testing IoT Devices” at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles on October 16. ETH/Ethereum: Ethereum launches Istanbul (Istanbul) main network upgrade, this main network upgrade involves 6 code upgrades. QTUM/Qtum: Qtum (QTUM) Qtum main network hard fork is scheduled for October 16. (CRYPTO): and 1 other 16 October 2019 Supply Chains Unblocked Supply Chains Unblocked in London from 9:30 AM — 6 PM. Binance Coin (BNB): 16 October 2019 Singapore Meetup “Bring your friends to come along with, & it will be FUN! With snacks and drinks.” IoTeX (IOTX): 16 October 2019 Mainet Beta “The next evolution of IoTeX blockchain, secure IoT hardware, and decentralized identity is coming October 16 — mark your calendars.” Selfkey (KEY): 16 October 2019 Corporate Wallet Release “Soon, wallet users will be able to manage corporate profiles and identity attributes.” Cardano (ADA): 16 October 2019 Washington D.C. Meetup “Nathan Kaiser, Chairperson of the Cardano Foundation, will join the community in Washington DC on Oct 16, and talk about the recent

Encrypted project calendar(October 17, 2019)

Holo (HOT): 17 October 2019 Redgrid AMA “Join us for the AMA with RedGrid on October 17th. Submit your questions before the AMA on our Holochain Dev Forum.” IOST (IOST): 17 October 2019 Breeding Competition Ends “Join IOST 2nd Breeding Competition by @FishChainGame now! The competition only lasts till 17 Oct” Aragon (ANT): 17 October 2019 Seoul Meetup “You are invited to join @licuende for a meetup and presentation on ‘Aragon and DAOs: What’s next after ICOs and DeFi?’” Skycoin (SKY): 17 October 2019 NYC Skywire Meetup NYC Skywire Mainnet Meetup in NYC from 6–8 PM. Horizen (ZEN): 17 October 2019 Weekly Insider Team updates at 3:30 PM UTC/ 11:30 AM EDT: Engineering, Node network, Product/UX, Helpdesk, Legal, BD, Marketing, CEO Closing thoughts, AMA.

Encrypted project calendar(October 18, 2019)

BTC/Bitcoin: The SEC will give a pass on the VanEck/SolidX ETF on October 18th and make a final decision HB/HeartBout: HeartBout (HB) will officially release the Android version of the HeartBout app on October 18. OKB (OKB): 18 October 2019 Rotterdam Meetup “Meet us in Rotterdam on 18 Oct as we partner up with Crypto010 Meetup to bring you a talk on ‘Decentralized Finance’.” HeartBout (HB): 18 October 2019 Android Version “18th of October 2019 will be officially released Android version of HeartBout app.” BTU Protocol (BTU): and 2 others 18 October 2019 Paris Blockchain Summit The event will gather major international key players of the Blockchain ecosystem including well-known influencers, investors, government…

Encrypted project calendar(October 19, 2019)

PI/PCHAIN Network: The PCHAIN (PI) backbone (Phase 5, 82 nodes, 164, 023, 802 $ PI, 7 candidates) will begin on October 19. LINK/ChainLink: Diffusion 2019 will be held in Berlin, Germany from October 19th to 20th DeepBrain Chain (DBC): 19 October 2019 (or earlier) Deploy Main Chain “Deploy Main Chain,” during the third week of October. General Event (CRYPTO): and 1 other 19 October 2019 Free State Blockchain “This “unconference” style event brings together some of the top financial tech innovators, researchers, company leaders, and other…” PCHAIN (PI): 19 October 2019 Main Chain Voting “Main chain: Epoch 5, 82 nodes, 164,023,802 $PI, 7 Candidates, voting will start on Oct. 19th.” Nash Exchange (NEX): 19 October 2019 Nash Anniversary Nash will present their work from the third quarter of 2019. Team members will be present and to answer your questions in person.

Encrypted project calendar(October 20, 2019)

GameCredits (GAME): 20 October 2019 (or earlier) Mining Reward Drop GameCredits mining reward will be cut in half at block 2519999 (~October 20). This will be the 4th halvening of the GAME mining reward! Aeternity (AE): 20 October 2019 Starfleet 3 App Deadline #Starfleet3 is happening in Malta and you have by October 20th to apply!

Encrypted project calendar(October 21, 2019)

KNC/Kyber Network: The official online hackathon of the Kyber Network (KNC) project will end on October 21st, with more than $42,000 in prize money. Horizen (ZEN): 21 October 2019 Sidechains Alpha Release Horizen releasing the alpha version of industry first decentralized and unfederated sidechains. Horizen (ZEN): 21 October 2019 Updated Whitepaper Horizen releasing an updated whitepaper.

Encrypted project calendar(October 22, 2019)

ZRX/0x: The 0x protocol (ZRX) Pantera blockchain summit will be held on October 22. Locus Chain (LOCUS): 22 October 2019 Public Test Begins Public test runs for three days from October 22nd to October 24th.

Encrypted project calendar(October 23, 2019)

MIOTA/IOTA: IOTA (MIOTA) IOTA will host a community event on October 23rd at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles with the theme “Connecting the I3 Market and Experiencing Purchase and Sales Data.” BTC/Bitcoin: The WBS World Blockchain Summit (Middle East) will be held in Dubai from October 23rd to 24th. Cardano (ADA) and 1 other: 23 October 2019 WBS Dubai “One of a kind gathering of 500+ curated & pre-qualified investors, CEOs, CIOs, CTOs, Heads of Blockchain, Chief Digital Officers CloakCoin (CLOAK): 23 October 2019 (or earlier) CloakCoin Competition “CloakCoin competition : solve the CloakCoin ENIGMA transaction, 3rd round.” Loom Network (LOOM): 23 October 2019 Singapore Meetup “Unstack the Stack Series: Loom Network” from 6:30–8:30 PM (SST).

Encrypted project calendar(October 24, 2019)

BCN/Bytecoin: Bytecoin (BCN) released the hidden amount of the Bytecoin block network on October 24.

Encrypted project calendar(October 25, 2019)

ADA/Cardano: Cardano (ADA) The Ada community will host a community gathering in the Dominican Republic for the first time on October 25.

Encrypted project calendar(October 26, 2019)

KAT/Kambria: Kambria (KAT) Kambria will host the 2019 Southern California Artificial Intelligence and Data Science Conference in Los Angeles on October 26th with IDEAS. BTC/Bitcoin: CoinAgenda Global Summit will be held in Las Vegas from October 26th to 28th

Encrypted project calendar(October 28, 2019)

LTC/Litecoin: Litecoin (LTC) 2019 Litecoin Summit will be held from October 28th to October 29th in Las Vegas, USA BTC/Bitcoin: Mt.Gox changes the debt compensation plan submission deadline to October 28 ZEC/Zcash: Zcash (ZEC) will activate the Blossom Agreement on October 28th

Encrypted project calendar(October 29, 2019)

BTC/Bitcoin: The 2nd World Encryption Conference (WCC) will be held in Las Vegas from October 29th to 31st.

Encrypted project calendar(October 30, 2019)

MIOTA/IOTA: IOTA (MIOTA) IOTA will host a community event on October 30th at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles on the topic “How to store data on IOTA Tangle.”

Encrypted project calendar(November 1, 2019)

INS/Insolar: The Insolar (INS) Insolar wallet and the redesigned Insolar Block Explorer will be operational on November 1, 2019.

Encrypted project calendar(November 6, 2019)

STEEM/Steem: The Steem (STEEM) SteemFest 4 conference will be held in Bangkok from November 6th to 10th.

Encrypted project calendar(November 8, 2019)

BTC/Bitcoin: The 2nd Global Digital Mining Summit will be held in Frankfurt, Germany from October 8th to 10th.

Encrypted project calendar(November 9, 2019)

CENNZ/Centrality: Centrality (CENNZ) will meet in InsurTechNZ Connect — Insurance and Blockchain on October 9th in Auckland.
https://preview.redd.it/0hzdpjdfyos31.png?width=504&format=png&auto=webp&s=7c2ab05fcaf1f0990e0d1b48db72bc91dadba3a1

In the past three sessions, there were mostly range moves in bitcoin below the $8,400 resistance against the US Dollar. Earlier, BTC price declined below the $8,200 support area and the 100 hourly simple moving average. A new weekly low was formed near $8,148 and recently the price started a decent upside correction. It broke the $8,200 and $8,300 levels to avoid any further losses.
Moreover, there was a break above the 50% Fib retracement level of the last slide from the $8,471 high to $8,148 swing low. The price even spiked above the $8,400 level and the 100 hourly simple moving average. However the upward move was capped and the bulls failed to gain momentum above $8,400. It seems like the 76.4% Fib retracement level of the last slide from the $8,471 high to $8,148 swing low acted as a strong resistance.
At the moment, the price is trading in a range below the $8,400 resistance area. Additionally, there is a new breakout pattern forming with resistance near $8,400 on the hourly chart of the BTC/USD pair. Above the triangle resistance, bitcoin price could face resistance near the $8,460 level. A successful close above $8,460 and a follow through above the $8,500 resistance might set the pace for a fresh increase in the near term.
On the downside, the triangle support is near the $8,280 level. If there is a downside break, the price could retest the main $8,200 support area. Should there be a daily close below the $8,200 support, the price may perhaps continue to slide towards the $8,000 and $7,800 support levels.
Review previous articles: https://medium.com/@to.liuwen

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submitted by liuidaxmn to u/liuidaxmn [link] [comments]

World History Timeline of Events Leading up to Bitcoin - In the Making

A (live/editable) timeline of historical events directly or indirectly related to the creation of Bitcoin and Cryptocurrencies
*still workin' on this so check back later and more will be added, if you have any suggested dates/events feel free to lemme know...
This timeline includes dates pertaining to:
Ancient Bartering – first recorded in Egypt (resources, services...) – doesn’t scale
Tally sticks were used, making notches in bones or wood, as a form of money of account
9000-6000 BC Livestock considered the first form of currency
c3200 BC Clay tablets used in Uruk (Iraq) for accounting (believed to be the earliest form of writing)
3000 BC Grain is used as a currency, measured out in Shekels
3000 BC Banking developed in Mesopotamia
3000 BC? Punches used to stamp symbols on coins were a precursor to the printing press and modern coins
? BC Since ancient Persia and all the way up until the invention and expansion of the telegraph Homing Pigeons were used to carry messages
2000 BC Merchants in Assyria, India and Sumeria lent grain to farmers and traders as a precursor to banks
1700 BC In Babylon at the time of Hammurabi, in the 18th century BC, there are records of loans made by the priests of the temple.
1200 BC Shell money first used in China
1000-600 BC Crude metal coins first appear in China
640 BC Precious metal coins – Gold & Silver first used in ancient Lydia and coastal Greek cities featuring face to face heads of a bull and a lion – first official minted currency made from electrum, a mixture of gold and silver
600-500 BC Atbash Cipher
A substitution Cipher used by ancient Hebrew scholars mapping the alphabet in reverse, for example, in English an A would be a Z, B a Y etc.
400 BC Skytale used by Sparta
474 BC Hundreds of gold coins from this era were discovered in Rome in 2018
350 BC Greek hydraulic semaphore system, an optical communication system developed by Aeneas Tacticus.
c200 BC Polybius Square
??? Wealthy stored coins in temples, where priests also lent them out
??? Rome was the first to create banking institutions apart from temples
118 BC First banknote in the form of 1 foot sq pieces of white deerskin
100-1 AD Caesar Cipher
193 Aureus, a gold coin of ancient Rome, minted by Septimius Severus
324 Solidus, pure gold coin, minted under Constantine’s rule, lasted until the late 8th century
600s Paper currency first developed in Tang Dynasty China during the 7th century, although true paper money did not appear until the 11th century, during the Song Dynasty, 960–1279
c757–796 Silver pennies based on the Roman denarius became the staple coin of Mercia in Great Britain around the time of King Offa
806 First paper banknotes used in China but isn’t widely accepted in China until 960
1024 The first series of standard government notes were issued in 1024 with denominations like 1 guàn (貫, or 700 wén), 1 mín (緡, or 1000 wén), up to 10 guàn. In 1039 only banknotes of 5 guàn and 10 guàn were issued, and in 1068 a denomination of 1 guàn was introduced which became forty percent of all circulating Jiaozi banknotes.
1040 The first movable type printer was invented in China and made of porcelain
? Some of the earliest forms of long distance communication were drums used by Native Africans and smoke signals used by Native Americans and Chinese
1088 Movable type in Song Dynasty China
1120 By the 1120s the central government officially stepped in and produced their own state-issued paper money (using woodblock printing)
1150 The Knights Templar issued bank notes to pilgrims. Pilgrims deposited their valuables with a local Templar preceptory before embarking, received a document indicating the value of their deposit, then used that document upon arrival in the Holy Land to retrieve their funds in an amount of treasure of equal value.
1200s-1300s During the 13th century bankers from north Italy, collectively known as Lombards, gradually replace the Jews in their traditional role as money-lenders to the rich and powerful. – Florence, Venice and Genoa - The Bardi and Peruzzi Families dominated banking in 14th century Florence, establishing branches in many other parts of Europe
1200 By the time Marco Polo visited China they’d move from coins to paper money, who introduced the concept to Europe. An inscription warned, "All counterfeiters will be decapitated." Before the use of paper, the Chinese used coins that were circular, with a rectangular hole in the middle. Several coins could be strung together on a rope. Merchants in China, if they became rich enough, found that their strings of coins were too heavy to carry around easily. To solve this problem, coins were often left with a trustworthy person, and the merchant was given a slip of paper recording how much money they had with that person. Marco Polo's account of paper money during the Yuan Dynasty is the subject of a chapter of his book, The Travels of Marco Polo, titled "How the Great Kaan Causeth the Bark of Trees, Made Into Something Like Paper, to Pass for Money All Over his Country."
1252 Florin minted in Florence, becomes the hard currency of its day helping Florence thrive economically
1340 Double-entry bookkeeping - The clerk keeping the accounts for the Genoese firm of Massari painstakingly fills in the ledger for the year 1340.
1397 Medici Bank established
1450 Johannes Gutenberg builds the printing press – printed words no longer just for the rich
1455 Paper money disappears from China
1466 Polyalphabetic Cipher
1466 Rotating cipher disks – Vatican – greatest crypto invention in 1000 yrs – the first system to challenge frequency analysis
1466 First known mechanical cipher machine
1472 The oldest bank still in existence founded, Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena, headquartered in Siena, Italy
1494 Double-entry bookkeeping system codified by Luca Pacioli
1535 Wampum, a form of currency used by Native Americans, a string of beads made from clamshells, is first document.
1553 Vigenere Cipher
1557 Phillip II of Spain managed to burden his kingdom with so much debt (as the result of several pointless wars) that he caused the world's first national bankruptcy — as well as the world's second, third and fourth, in rapid succession.
1577 Newspaper in Korea
1586 The Babington Plot
1590 Cabinet Noir was established in France. Its mission was to open, read and reseal letters, and great expertise was developed in the restoration of broken seals. In the knowledge that mail was being opened, correspondents began to develop systems to encrypt and decrypt their letters. The breaking of these codes gave birth to modern systematic scientific code breaking.
1600s Promissory banknotes began in London
1600s By the early 17th century banking begins also to exist in its modern sense - as a commercial service for customers rather than kings. – Late 17th century we see cheques slowly gains acceptance
The total of the money left on deposit by a bank's customers is a large sum, only a fraction of which is usually required for withdrawals. A proportion of the rest can be lent out at interest, bringing profit to the bank. When the customers later come to realize this hidden value of their unused funds, the bank's profit becomes the difference between the rates of interest paid to depositors and demanded from debtors.
The transformation from moneylenders into private banks is a gradual one during the 17th and 18th centuries. In England it is achieved by various families of goldsmiths who early in the period accept money on deposit purely for safe-keeping. Then they begin to lend some of it out. Finally, by the 18th century, they make banking their business in place of their original craft as goldsmiths.
1605 Newspaper in Straussburg
c1627 Great Cipher
1637 Wampum is declared as legal tender in the U.S. (where we got the slang word “clams” for money)
1656 Johan Palmstruch establishes the Stockholm Banco
1661 Paper Currency reappears in Europe, soon became common - The goldsmith-bankers of London began to give out the receipts as payable to the bearer of the document rather than the original depositor
1661 Palmstruch issues credit notes which can be exchanged, on presentation to his bank, for a stated number of silver coins
1666 Stockholms Banco, the predecessor to the Central Bank of Sweden issues the first paper money in Europe. Soon went bankrupt for printing too much money.
1667 He issues more notes than his bank can afford to redeem with silver and winds up in disgrace, facing a death penalty (commuted to imprisonment) for fraud.
1668 Bank of Sweden – today the 2nd oldest surviving bank
1694 First Central Bank established in the UK was the first bank to initiate the permanent issue of banknotes
Served as model for most modern central banks.
The modern banknote rests on the assumption that money is determined by a social and legal consensus. A gold coin's value is simply a reflection of the supply and demand mechanism of a society exchanging goods in a free market, as opposed to stemming from any intrinsic property of the metal. By the late 17th century, this new conceptual outlook helped to stimulate the issue of banknotes.
1700s Throughout the commercially energetic 18th century there are frequent further experiments with bank notes - deriving from a recognized need to expand the currency supply beyond the availability of precious metals.
1710 Physiocracy
1712 First commercial steam engine
1717 Master of the Royal Mint Sir Isaac Newton established a new mint ratio between silver and gold that had the effect of driving silver out of circulation (bimetalism) and putting Britain on a gold standard.
1735 Classical Economics – markets regulate themselves when free of intervention
1744 Mayer Amschel Rothschild, Founder of the Rothschild Banking Empire, is Born in Frankfurt, Germany
Mayer Amschel Rothschild extended his banking empire across Europe by carefully placing his five sons in key positions. They set up banks in Frankfurt, Vienna, London, Naples, and Paris. By the mid 1800’s they dominated the banking industry, lending to governments around the world and people such as the Vanderbilts, Carnegies, and Cecil Rhodes.
1745 There was a gradual move toward the issuance of fixed denomination notes in England standardized printed notes ranging from £20 to £1,000 were being printed.
1748 First recorded use of the word buck for a dollar, stemming from the Colonial period in America when buck skins were commonly traded
1757 Colonial Scrip Issued in US
1760s Mayer Amschel Rothschild establishes his banking business
1769 First steam powered car
1775-1938 US Diplomatic Codes & Ciphers by Ralph E Weber used – problems were security and distribution
1776 American Independence
1776 Adam Smith’s Invisible Hand theory helped bankers and money-lenders limit government interference in the banking sector
1781 The Bank of North America was a private bank first adopted created the US Nation's first de facto central bank. When shares in the bank were sold to the public, the Bank of North America became the country's first initial public offering. It lasted less than ten years.
1783 First steamboat
1791 Congress Creates the First US Bank – A Private Company, Partly Owned by Foreigners – to Handle the Financial Needs of the New Central Government. First Bank of the United States, a National bank, chartered for a term of twenty years, it was not renewed in 1811.
Previously, the 13 states had their own banks, currencies and financial institutions, which had an average lifespan of about 5 years.
1792 First optical telegraph invented where towers with telescopes were dispersed across France 12-25 km apart, relaying signals according to positions of arms extended from the top of the towers.
1795 Thomas Jefferson invents the Jefferson Disk Cipher or Wheel Cipher
1797 to 1821 Restriction Period by England of trading banknotes for silver during Napoleonic Wars
1797 Currency Crisis
Although the Bank was originally a private institution, by the end of the 18th century it was increasingly being regarded as a public authority with civic responsibility toward the upkeep of a healthy financial system.
1799 First paper machine
1800 Banque de France – France’s central bank opens to try to improve financing of the war
1800 Invention of the battery
1801 Rotchschild Dynasty begins in Frankfurt, Holy Roman Empire – established international banking family through his 5 sons who established themselves in London, Paris, Frankfurt, Vienna, and Naples
1804 Steam locomotive
1807 Internal combustion engine and automobile
1807 Robert Fulton expands water transportation and trade with the workable steamboat.
1809 Telegraphy
1811 First powered printing press, also first to use a cylinder
1816 The Privately Owned Second Bank of the US was Chartered – It Served as the Main Depository for Government Revenue, Making it a Highly Profitable Bank – charter not renewed in 1836
1816 The first working telegraph was built using static electricity
1816 Gold becomes the official standard of value in England
1820 Industrial Revolution
c1820 Neoclassical Economics
1821 British gov introduces the gold standard - With governments issuing the bank notes, the inherent danger is no longer bankruptcy but inflation.
1822 Charles Babbage, considered the "father of the computer", begins building the first programmable mechanical computer.
1832 Andrew Jackson Campaigns Against the 2nd Bank of the US and Vetoes Bank Charter Renewal
Andrew Jackson was skeptical of the central banking system and believed it gave too few men too much power and caused inflation. He was also a proponent of gold and silver and an outspoken opponent of the 2nd National Bank. The Charter expired in 1836.
1833 President Jackson Issues Executive Order to Stop Depositing Government Funds Into Bank of US
By September 1833, government funds were being deposited into state chartered banks.
1833-1837 Manufactured “boom” created by central bankers – money supply Increases 84%, Spurred by the 2nd Bank of the US
The total money supply rose from $150 million to $267 million
1835 Jackson Escapes Assassination. Assassin misfired twice.
1837-1862 The “Free Banking Era” there was no formal central bank in the US, and banks issued their own notes again
1838 First Telegram sent using Morse Code across 3 km, in 1844 he sent a message across 71 km from Washington DC to Baltimore.
1843 Ada Lovelace published the first algorithm for computing
1844 Modern central bank of England established - meaning only the central bank of England could issue banknotes – prior to that commercial banks could issue their own and were the primary form of currency throughout England
the Bank of England was restricted to issue new banknotes only if they were 100% backed by gold or up to £14 million in government debt.
1848 Communist Manifesto
1850 The first undersea telegraphic communications cable connected France in England after latex produced from the sap of the Palaquium gutta tree in 1845 was proposed as insulation for the underwater cables.
1852 Many countries in Europe build telegram networks, however post remained the primary means of communication to distant countries.
1855 In England fully printed notes that did not require the name of the payee and the cashier's signature first appeared
1855 The printing telegraph made it possible for a machine with 26 alphabetic keys to print the messages automatically and was soon adopted worldwide.
1856 Belgian engineer Charles Bourseul proposed telephony
1856 The Atlantic Telegraph company was formed in London to stretch a commercial telegraph cable across the Atlantic Ocean, completed in 1866.
1860 The Pony Express was founded, able to deliver mail of wealthy individuals or government officials from coast to coast in 10 days.
1861 The East coast was connected to the West when Western Union completed the transcontinental telegraph line, putting an end to unprofitable The Pony Express.
1862-1863 First US banknotes - Lincoln Over Rules Debt-Based Money and Issues Greenbacks to Fund Civil War
Bankers would only lend the government money under certain conditions and at high interest rates, so Lincoln issued his own currency – “greenbacks” – through the US Treasury, and made them legal tender. His soldiers went on to win the war, followed by great economic expansion.
1863 to 1932 “National Banking Era” Commercial banks in the United States had legally issued banknotes before there was a national currency; however, these became subject to government authorization from 1863 to 1932
1864 Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen founded the first rural credit union in Heddesdorf (now part of Neuwied) in Germany. By the time of Raiffeisen's death in 1888, credit unions had spread to Italy, France, the Netherlands, England, Austria, and other nations
1870 Long-distance telegraph lines connected Britain and India.
c1871 Marginalism - The doctrines of marginalism and the Marginal Revolution are often interpreted as a response to the rise of the worker's movement, Marxian economics and the earlier (Ricardian) socialist theories of the exploitation of labour.
1871 Carl Menger’s Principles of Economics – Austrian School
1872 Marx’s Das Capital
1872 Australia becomes the first nation to be connected to the rest of the world via submarine telegraph cables.
1876 Alexander Graham Bell patented the telephone, first called the electric speech machine – revolutionized communication
1877 Thomas Edison – Phonograph
1878 Western Union, the leading telegraph provider of the U.S., begins to lose out to the telephone technology of the National Bell Telephone Company.
1881 President James Garfield, Staunch Proponent of “Honest Money” Backed by Gold and Silver, was Assassinated
Garfield opposed fiat currency (money that was not backed by any physical object). He had the second shortest Presidency in history.
1882 First description of the one-time pad
1886 First gas powered car
1888 Ballpoint pen
1892 Cinematograph
1895 System of wireless communication using radio waves
1896 First successful intercontinental telegram
1898 Polyethylene
1899 Nickel-cadmium battery
1907 Banking Panic of 1907
The New York Stock Exchange dropped dramatically as everyone tried to get their money out of the banks at the same time across the nation. This banking panic spurred debate for banking reform. JP Morgan and others gathered to create an image of concern and stability in the face of the panic, which eventually led to the formation of the Federal Reserve. The founders of the Federal Reserve pretended like the bankers were opposed to the idea of its formation in order to mislead the public into believing that the Federal Reserve would help to regulate bankers when in fact it really gave even more power to private bankers, but in a less transparent way.
1908 St Mary’s Bank – first credit union in US
1908 JP Morgan Associate and Rockefeller Relative Nelson Aldrich Heads New National Monetary Commission
Senate Republican leader, Nelson Aldrich, heads the new National Monetary Commission that was created to study the cause of the banking panic. Aldrich had close ties with J.P. Morgan and his daughter married John D. Rockefeller.
1910 Bankers Meet Secretly on Jekyll Island to Draft Federal Reserve Banking Legislation
Over the course of a week, some of the nation’s most powerful bankers met secretly off the coast of Georgia, drafting a proposal for a private Central Banking system.
1913 Federal Reserve Act Passed
Two days before Christmas, while many members of Congress were away on vacation, the Federal Reserve Act was passed, creating the Central banking system we have today, originally with gold backed Federal Reserve Notes. It was based on the Aldrich plan drafted on Jekyll Island and gave private bankers supreme authority over the economy. They are now able to create money out of nothing (and loan it out at interest), make decisions without government approval, and control the amount of money in circulation.
1913 Income tax established -16th Amendment Ratified
Taxes ensured that citizens would cover the payment of debt due to the Central Bank, the Federal Reserve, which was also created in 1913.The 16th Amendment stated: “The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.”
1914 November, Federal Reserve Banks Open
JP Morgan and Co. Profits from Financing both sides of War and Purchasing Weapons
J.P. Morgan and Co. made a deal with the Bank of England to give them a monopoly on underwriting war bonds for the UK and France. They also invested in the suppliers of war equipment to Britain and France.
1914 WWI
1917 Teletype cipher
1917 The one-time pad
1917 Zimmerman Telegram intercepted and decoded by Room 40, the cryptanalysis department of the British Military during WWI.
1918 GB returns to gold standard post-war but it didn’t work out
1919 First rotor machine, an electro-mechanical stream ciphering and decrypting machine.
1919 Founding of The Cipher Bureau, Poland’s intelligence and cryptography agency.
1919-1929 The Black Chamber, a forerunner of the NSA, was the first U.S. cryptanalytic organization. Worked with the telegraph company Western Union to illegally acquire foreign communications of foreign embassies and representatives. It was shut down in 1929 as funding was removed after it was deemed unethical to intercept private domestic radio signals.
1920s Department stores, hotel chains and service staions begin offering customers charge cards
1921-1929 The “Roaring 20’s” – The Federal Reserve Floods the Economy with Cash and Credit
From 1921 to 1929 the Federal Reserve increased the money supply by $28 billion, almost a 62% increase over an eight-year period.[3] This artificially created another “boom”.
1927 Quartz clock
1928 First experimental Television broadcast in the US.
1929 Federal Reserve Contracts the Money Supply
In 1929, the Federal Reserve began to pull money out of circulation as loans were paid back. They created a “bust” which was inevitable after issuing so much credit in the years before. The Federal Reserve’s actions triggered the banking crisis, which led to the Great Depression.
1929 October 24, “Black Thursday”, Stock Market Crash
The most devastating stock market crash in history. Billions of dollars in value were consolidated into the private banker’s hands at the expense of everyone else.
1930s The Great Depression marked the end of the gold standard
1931 German Enigma machines attained and reconstructed.
1932 Turbo jet engine patented
1933 SEC founded - passed the Glass–Steagall Act, which separated investment banking and commercial banking. This was to avoid more risky investment banking activities from ever again causing commercial bank failures.
1933 FM Radio
1933 Germany begins Telex, a network of teleprinters sending and receiving text based messages. Post WWII Telex networks began to spread around the world.
1936 Austrian engineer Paul Eisler invented Printed circuit board
1936 Beginning of the Keynesian Revolution
1937 Typex, British encryption machines which were upgraded versions of Enigma machines.
1906 Teletypewriters
1927 Founding of highly secret and unofficial Signal Intelligence Service, SIS, the U.S. Army’s codebreaking division.
1937 Made illegal for Americans to own gold
1938 Z1 built by Konrad Zuse is the first freely programmable computer in the world.
1939 WWII – decline of the gold standard which greatly restricted policy making
1939-45 Codetalkers - The Navajo code is the only spoken military code never to have been deciphered - "Were it not for the Navajos, the Marines would never have taken Iwo Jima."—Howard Connor
1940 Modems
1942 Deciphering Japanese coded messages leads to a turning point victory for the U.S. in WWII.
1943 At Bletchley Park, Alan Turing and team build a specialized cipher-breaking machine called Heath Robinson.
1943 Colossus computer built in London to crack the German Lorenz cipher.
1944 Bretton Woods – convenient after the US had most of the gold
1945 Manhattan Project – Atom Bomb
1945 Transatlantic telephone cable
1945 Claude E. Shannon published "A mathematical theory of cryptography", commonly accepted as the starting point for development of modern cryptography.
C1946 Crypto Wars begin and last to this day
1946 Charg-it card created by John C Biggins
1948 Atomic clock
1948 Claude Shannon writes a paper that establishes the mathematical basis of information theory
1949 Info theorist Claude Shannon asks “What does an ideal cipher look like?” – one time pad – what if the keys are not truly random
1950 First credit card released by the Diners Club, able to be used in 20 restaurants in NYC
1951 NSA, National Security Agency founded and creates the KL-7, an off-line rotor encryption machine
1952 First thermonuclear weapon
1953 First videotape recorder
1953 Term “Hash” first used meaning to “chop” or “make a mess” out of something
1954 Atomic Energy Act (no mention of crypto)
1957 The NSA begins producing ROMOLUS encryption machines, soon to be used by NATO
1957 First PC – IBM
1957 First Satellite – Sputnik 1
1958 Western Union begins building a nationwide Telex network in the U.S.
1960s Machine readable codes were added to the bottom of cheques in MICR format, which speeded up the clearing and sorting process
1960s Financial organizations were beginning to require strong commercial encryption on the rapidly growing field of wired money transfer.
1961 Electronic clock
1963 June 4, Kennedy Issued an Executive Order (11110) that Authorized the US Treasury to Issue Silver Certificates, Threatening the Federal Reserve’s Monopoly on Money
This government issued currency would bypass the governments need to borrow from bankers at interest.
1963 Electronic calculator
1963 Nov. 22, Kennedy Assassinated
1963 Johnson Reverses Kennedy’s Banking Rule and Restores Power to the Federal Reserve
1964 8-Track
1964 LAN, Local Area Networks adapters
1965 Moore’s Law by CEO of Intel Gordon Moore observes that the number of components per integrated circuit doubles every year, and projected this rate of growth would continue for at least another decade. In 1975 he revised it to every two years.
1967 First ATM installed at Barclay’s Bank in London
1968 Cassette Player introduced
1969 First connections of ARPANET, predecessor of the internet, are made. started – SF, SB, UCLA, Utah (now Darpa) – made to stay ahead of the Soviets – there were other networks being built around the world but it was very hard to connect them – CERN in Europe
1970s Stagflation – unemployment + inflation, which Keynesian theory could not explain
1970s Business/commercial applications for Crypto emerge – prior to this time it was militarily used – ATMs 1st got people thinking about commercial applications of cryptography – data being sent over telephone lines
1970s The public developments of the 1970s broke the near monopoly on high quality cryptography held by government organizations.
Use of checks increased in 70s – bringing about ACH
One way functions...
A few companies began selling access to private networks – but weren’t allowed to connect to the internet – business and universities using Arpanet had no commercial traffic – internet was used for research, not for commerce or advertising
1970 Railroads threatened by the growing popularity of air travel. Penn Central Railroad declares bankruptcy resulting in a $3.2 billion bailout
1970 Conjugate coding used in an attempt to design “money physically impossible to counterfeit”
1971 The US officially removes the gold standard
1971 Email invented
1971 Email
1971 First microcomputer on a chip
1971 Lockheed Bailout - $1.4 billion – Lockheed was a major government defense contractor
1972 First programmable word processor
1972 First video game console
1973 SWIFT established
1973 Ethernet invented, standardized in ‘83
1973 Mobile phone
1973 First commercial GUI – Xerox Alto
1973 First touchscreen
1973 Emails made up more than ¾ of ARPANET’s packets – people had to keep a map of the network by their desk – so DNS was created
1974 A protocol for packet network intercommunication – TCP/IP – Cerf and Kahn
1974 Franklin National Bank Bailout - $1.5 billion (valued at that time) - At the time, it was the largest bank failure in US history
1975 New York City Bailout - $9.4 billion – NYC was overextended
1975 W DES - meant that commercial uses of high quality encryption would become common, and serious problems of export control began to arise.
1975 DES, Data Encryption Standard developed at IBM, seeking to develop secure electronic communications for banks and large financial organizations. DES was the first publicly accessible cipher to be 'blessed' by a national agency such as the NSA. Its release stimulated an explosion of public and academic interest in cryptography.
1975 Digital camera
1975 Altair 8800 sparks the microprocessor revolution
1976 Bretton Woods ratified (lasted 30 years) – by 80’s all nations were using floating currencies
1976 New Directions in Cryptography published by Diffie & Hellman – this terrified Fort Meade – previously this technique was classified, now it’s public
1976 Apple I Computer – Steve Wozniak
1976 Asymmetric key cryptosystem published by Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman.
1976 Hellman and Diffie publish New Directions in Cryptography, introducing a radically new method of distributing cryptographic keys, contributing much to solving key distribution one of the fundamental problems of cryptography. It brought about the almost immediate public development of asymmetric key algorithms. - where people can have 2 sets of keys, public and private
1977 Diffie & Hellman receive letter from NSA employee JA Meyer that they’re violating Federal Laws comparable to arms export – this raises the question, “Can the gov prevent academics from publishing on crypto?
1977 DES considered insecure
1977 First handheld electronic game
1977 RSA public key encryption invented
1978 McEliece Cryptosystem invented, first asymmetric encryption algorithm to use randomization in the encryption process
1980s Large data centers began being built to store files and give users a better faster experience – companies rented space from them - Data centers would not only store data but scour it to show people what they might want to see and in some cases, sell data
1980s Reaganomics and Thatcherism
1980 A decade of intense bank failures begins; the FDIC reports that 1,600 were either closed or received financial assistance from 1980 to 1994
1980 Chrysler Bailout – lost over $1 billion due to major hubris on the part of its executives - $1.5 billion one of the largest payouts ever made to a single corporation.
1980 Protocols for public key cryptosystems – Ralph Merkle
1980 Flash memory invented – public in ‘84
1981 “Untraceable Electronic Mail, Return Addresses and Digital Pseudonumns” – Chaum
1981 EFTPOS, Electronic funds transfer at point of sale is created
1981 IBM Personal Computer
1982 “The Ethics of Liberty” Murray Rothbard
1982 Commodore 64
1982 CD
1983 Satellite TV
1983 First built in hard drive
1983 C++
1983 Stereolithography
1983 Blind signatures for untraceable payments
Mid 1980s Use of ATMs becomes more widespread
1984 Continental Illinois National Bank and Trust bailed out due to overly aggressive lending styles and - the bank’s downfall could be directly traced to risk taking and a lack of due diligence on the part of bank officers - $9.5 billion in 2008 money
1984 Macintosh Computer - the first mass-market personal computer that featured a graphical user interface, built-in screen and mouse
1984 CD Rom
1985 Zero-Knowledge Proofs first proposed
1985 300,000 simultaneous telephone conversations over single optical fiber
1985 Elliptic Curve Cryptography
1987 ARPANET had connected over 20k guarded computers by this time
1988 First private networks email servers connected to NSFNET
1988 The Crypto Anarchists Manifesto – Timothy C May
1988 ISDN, Integrated Services Digital Network
1989 Savings & Loan Bailout - After the widespread failure of savings and loan institutions, President George H. W. Bush signed and Congress enacted the Financial Institutions Reform Recovery and Enforcement Act - This was a taxpayer bailout of about $200 billion
1989 First commercial emails sent
1989 Digicash - Chaum
1989 Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau built the prototype system which became the World Wide Web, WWW
1989 First ISPs – companies with no network of their own which connected people to a local network and to the internet - To connect to a network your computer placed a phone call through a modem which translated analog signals to digital signals – dial-up was used to connect computers as phone lines already had an extensive network across the U.S. – but phone lines weren’t designed for high pitched sounds that could change fast to transmit large amounts of data
1990s Cryptowars really heat up...
1990s Some countries started to change their laws to allow "truncation"
1990s Encryption export controls became a matter of public concern with the introduction of the personal computer. Phil Zimmermann's PGP cryptosystem and its distribution on the Internet in 1991 was the first major 'individual level' challenge to controls on export of cryptography. The growth of electronic commerce in the 1990s created additional pressure for reduced restrictions.[3] Shortly afterward, Netscape's SSL technology was widely adopted as a method for protecting credit card transactions using public key cryptography.
1990 NSFNET replaced Arpanet as backbone of the internet with more than 500k users
Early 90s Dial up provided through AOL and Compuserve
People were leery to use credit cards on the internet
1991 How to time-stamp a digital doc - Stornetta
1991 Phil Zimmermann releases the public key encryption program Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) along with its source code, which quickly appears on the Internet. He distributed a freeware version of PGP when he felt threatened by legislation then under consideration by the US Government that would require backdoors to be included in all cryptographic products developed within the US. Expanded the market to include anyone wanting to use cryptography on a personal computer (before only military, governments, large corporations)
1991 WWW (Tim Berners Lee) – made public in ‘93 – flatten the “tree” structure of the internet using hypertext – reason for HTTP//:WWW – LATER HTTPS for more security
1992 Erwise – first Internet Browser w a graphical Interface
1992 Congress passed a law allowing for commercial traffic on NSFNET
1992 Cpherpunks, Eric Hughes, Tim C May and John Gilmore – online privacy and safety from gov – cypherpunks write code so it can be spread and not shut down (in my earlier chapter)
1993 Mosaic – popularized surfing the web ‘til Netscape Navigator in ’94 – whose code was later used in Firefox
1993 A Cypherpunks Manifesto – Eric Hughes
1994 World’s first online cyberbank, First Virtual, opened for business
1994 Bluetooth
1994 First DVD player
1994 Stanford Federal Credit Union becomes the first financial institution to offer online internet banking services to all of its members in October 1994
1994 Internet only used by a few
1994 Cybercash
1994 Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) encryption protocol released by Netscape. Making financial transactions possible.
1994 One of the first online purchases was made, a Pizza Hut pepperoni pizza with mushrooms and extra cheese
1994 Cyphernomicon published – social implication where gov can’t do anything about it
1994-1999 Social Networking – GeoCities (combining creators and users) – had 19M users by ’99 – 3rd most popular after AOL and Yahoo – GeoCities purchased by Yahoo for $3.6B but took a hit after dotcom bubble popped and never recovered – GC shut down in ‘99
1995-2000 Dotcom bubble – Google, Amazon, Facebook: get over 600M visitors/year
1995 DVD
1995 MP3 term coined for MP3 files, the earlier development of which stretches back into the ‘70s, where MP files themselves where developed throughout the ‘90s
1995 NSFNET shut down and handed everything over to the ISPs
1995 NSA publishes the SHA1 hash algorithm as part of its Digital Signature Standard.
1996, 2000 President Bill Clinton signing the Executive order 13026 transferring the commercial encryption from the Munition List to the Commerce Control List. This order permitted the United States Department of Commerce to implement rules that greatly simplified the export of proprietary and open source software containing cryptography, which they did in 2000 - The successful cracking of DES likely helped gather both political and technical support for more advanced encryption in the hands of ordinary citizens - NSA considers AES strong enough to protect information classified at the Top Secret level
1996 e-gold
1997 WAP, Wireless Access Point
1997 NSA researchers published how to mint e cash
1997 Adam Back – HashCash – used PoW – coins could only be used once
1997 Nick Szabo – smart contracts “Formalizing and Securing Relationships on Public Networks”
1998 OSS, Open-source software Initiative Founded
1998 Wei Dai – B-money – decentralized database to record txs
1998 Bitgold
1998 First backdoor created by hackers from Cult of the Dead Cow
1998 Musk and Thiel founded PayPal
1998 Nick Szabo says crypto can protect land titles even if thugs take it by force – said it could be done with a timestamped database
1999 Much of the Glass-Steagal Act repealed - this saw US retail banks embark on big rounds of mergers and acquisitions and also engage in investment banking activities.
1999 Milton Friedman says, “I think that the Internet is going to be one of the major forces for reducing the role of government. The one thing that's missing, but that will soon be developed, is a reliable e-cash - a method whereby on the Internet you can transfer funds from A to B without A knowing B or B knowing A.”
1999 European banks began offering mobile banking with the first smartphones
1999 The Financial Services Modernization Act Allows Banks to Grow Even Larger
Many economists and politicians have recognized that this legislation played a key part in the subprime mortgage crisis of 2007.
1999-2001 Napster, P2P file sharing – was one of the fastest growing businesses in history – bankrupt for paying musicians for copyright infringement

submitted by crypto_jedi_ninja to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

All Riddles Solved??

You know, since ive heard of bearableguy and his riddles, since ive seen them and broken my head trying to understand them, my crypto life in the crypto sphere hasnt been the same again..
I dont know about You but these days anything coming out of a tweet or the mouths of a ripple employee is a riddle or clue to me. I cant help but imagine some hidden message behind the reason for the words chosen. Naturally, my tinfoil hat or whatever you wish to call it comes out to play.
Most recently we've seen Miguel Vias (XRP Markets at Ripple) reply to a tweet saying,
"When $XRP is more liquid than a G10 currency, l'll buy myself a chocolate chip 🍪 and get back to work. #xrpthestandard #0doubt #chessnotcheckers"
The guy mentions the G10! And he implies by his # that its a calculated game of chess thats being played. And we can also say he has zero doubt that xrp will become the standard.
So who are the G10? Taken from wikipedia we get: "The Group of Ten (G-10 or G10) refers to the group of countries that agreed to participate in the General Arrangements to Borrow (GAB), an agreement to provide the International Monetary Fund (IMF) with additional funds to increase its lending ability."
Also, "The GAB was established in 1962, when the governments of eight International Monetary Fund (IMF) members—Belgium, Canada, France, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States—and the central banks of two others, Germany and Sweden, agreed to make resources available to the IMF with an additional $6 billion of their resources. The additional money was intended to allow the IMF to have increased lending resources.
In 1964, the funds were used by the IMF to rescue the Pound sterling. The G-10 grew in 1964 by the association of the eleventh member, Switzerland, then a nonmember of the Fund, but the name of the G10 remained the same. In 2011, Spain and Australia.
The Group of Ten signed the Smithsonian Agreement in December 1971, replacing the world's fixed exchange rate regime with a floating exchange rate regime."
What is the 'Smithsonian Agreement'? " The Smithsonian Agreement is an agreement, announced in December 1971 that created a new dollar standard whereby the major currencies of the mostly highly industrialized nations were pegged to the US dollar at central rates. "
Going back to the Castle Riddle Image by bearableguy, we see a Castle, a Knight and a King. Whats the first thing that comes to your mind when you see those images? Im guessing you are thinking about England? The age of dominance (Sterling pound).
-The castle could represent the Powers That Be (a solid structure). -The arm controlling the puppet would be the silent players behind the scene who operate on behalf of the PTB to ensure the castle remains a power house and they control/manipulate the decisions of the institutions depicted by binary code on the puppet (refer to castle riddle image for details). -The King (money/powehigh status/important player) who has no mouth meaning he cannot give orders and so hes a false king could be referring to SWIFT (dominated the global financial world) -I think bearableguy is trying to tell us that Bitcoin/blockchain is a creation of the Powers that be (the Phoenix below the Bitcoin flag suggests he's pointing us to the infomous cover of the economist magazine that points to a new world currency). -on the opposite end we have the USD flag and below it we have the Ouroboros dragon. The Ouroboros is a Greek word meaning "tail devourer," and is one of the oldest mystical symbols in the world. Foremost is the symbolism of the serpent biting, devouring, or eating its own tail. The ouroboros eats its own tail to sustain its life, in an eternal cycle of renewal. What we can decipher from the USD/Ouroboros pairing is that the dollar life cycle is nearing its end but will be given life again. - how will the dollar be given life again? The clue is in the dominance of The XRP flag standing the highest as if symbolizing it is now the standard "House Name" for the Castle (I would assume that before the XRP at peak, it was the USD and before it was the Sterling Pound). There will be some sort of mergepegging done between USD and XRP which will ensure the survival of the dollar and the dominance of the castle to remain in power.
Bearableguy points to an end of year price prediction of $589+ which some have concluded to mean 58.9, the cobalts scientific number. This could be true but the way i see it is bearableguy being smart, as he always is, and is trying to kill two birds with one stone on the $589+ prediction. (Check his 2 birds one stone clue). It could mean together with cobalt and xrp becoming the standard, we could see a figure value of greater than $589.
Now its obvious that the US cannot just agree by itself to announce xrp as a global standard but thats where Miguel Vias tweet comes to play. End of year we have a G10 meeting thats to come and who knows what decision will come out of that meeting, this time to save a struggling dollar.
Remember, my fellow XRP soldiers, the significance and dominance of XRP has not yet been fully understood by a majority of the people. Together with its interledger protocol, it will dominate the worlds every move when it comes to moving anything of value at the blink of an eye. With such dominance and power to be a global player dont you see that the powers that be are the main players behind the scene?
The 3 Invisible hands from the the recent clue could mean that bearableguy is trying to tell us that the powers that be want/need RIPPLE/XRP to begin going into play by the Powerhouses of the financial world (Federal reserve? SWIFT? World Bank?). The Powers that be obviously need this for their own benefit (retain dominance) but the consequences are it will benefit everyone else as well ( a better financial system ).
The knight in the Castle riddle suggests Brad Garlinghouse (team Ripple) are just soldiers for the Powers that be.
If i were to guess who Bearableguy was, id say he's not 1 person, but rather a team with a huge heart who have decided to gives us hope and signals to continue accumulating and HODLing because the future is bright (David Schwartz eyes in the SWIFT binary code image). Some of them at the highest levels cannot openly tell us whats going on but the breadcrumbs they leave, we appreciate.
submitted by BestedbyTheJester to Rippled [link] [comments]

Starting with almost nothing, I made almost $500,000 gambling with Bitcoin. I then lost it all in about 60 seconds. I am now $50k in debt and will most likely lose my job, my visa status, my fiancee. AMA.

EDIT: 01/12/14
EDIT: Thank you all for taking the time to read this. The overwhelming majority of your responses have been very supportive, and I feel that I got a lot of perspective. I am in tears right now, because in my self-loathing state I really did not expect so much positive feedback. I need to come clean to my fiancee, because that is the one variable that I can control.
This is a story of luck, hope, greed, despair, stupidity. Over the past 10 days I have gone one a rollercoaster ride of the full spectrum of human emotion. I am trying to live down what happened, and maybe this AMA will help me. I feel this can work both ways too, and I am grateful for any advice I receive. Hopefully also it will help you!
I say that I hope my story will help you and I really mean that any of you, because let me start off by saying that I am not a gambler, and I have never even exhibited gambling tendencies before. I am a risktaker and I enjoy new experiences, but I have always considered myself responsible and I have a sound understanding of the maths behind gambling. I know that the house always wins. But after what happened to me, how quickly I got sucked in, how much money I made, and how it all ended just days later, I honestly do not feel that I was fully in control of my actions. If it happened to me, it can happen to you too, and I sincerely hope that after reading this, it never will.
Let me give some more specific details, so that you have a more complete picture. I will fill in the rest in response to your questions.
EDIT: I ran out of space for proof, please see comments.
So this is pretty much my story. I meant for this to be short, but I now I'm almost at the word limit. I hope there is still room for questions!
I realize that there are a lot of people who will say that I had it coming, and I fully accept that. The truth is that I am a bad person, and it was not even some conflict of good and bad, this was just all bad. I lose as a human being, and I deserve nothing but the worst of what life has to offer me in the future. And if I sound incongruently cheerful, it's probably because the gravity of the situation has not fully sunk in yet. Trust me, I am not cheerful. I have literally lost everything, I am suicidal, and there is literally no silver lining here. So please reserve your judgment; I will be judged to the fullest extent over however long a time I have left to live.
Gambling details:
1 Some of the names and places may be fictitious.
2 I was never a gambler, but I do have a degree in math: there's around a 90% chance that you will top up by 10% if you combine basic strategy with martingale. The inherent variance, 3/2 payouts and doubling makes the whole process very confusing to an untrained eye, and it's not that obvious that you are using a cheap and flawed betting system. Scraping a small profit is very easy and fun. I guess I just wanted to impress my fiancee and her friends.
3 The bad beats with Blackjack were mainly due to variance. The problem with Blackjack is that the house edge is calculated by considering a large number of hands with the same starting bet. But with martingales, getting a 3/2 payout is more beneficial with higher bets; likewise having to split/double is good with higher bets, but not good if you're up against the max bet. So the luck further compounded by variance of the bet amount with respect to the starting hand. In roulette the house edge is worse, the but game is a lot more homogeneous.
4 I gave bitZino about 6 months of their earnings from last year in just under one minute: http://arstechnica.com/business/2013/01/bitcoin-based-casino-rakes-in-over-500000-profit-in-six-months/
5 The probability of a run of 7 black is just under 1%, which is a number that we can relate to, it's 1 in 100. Pretty unlikely. If your luck sucks you might hit it a few times. The probability of 10 blacks is just under 0.1%. So if you hit one of the above, then only count is 1 in 10 times. Your luck has got to really suck to hit that more than once. The probability of an initial run of 12 black is around 0.02%, which is just ridiculously low. The probability of 20 black is about 0.0001% which is astronomically low. Disregarding the 2 reds, since I hit the max limit, so not really a fair account, but still. This is almost impossible.
submitted by WinnerAndLoser to IAmA [link] [comments]

Bank of England adviser tells Bloomberg that cryptos fail fundamental financial tests

Crypto Market Recap

Crypto Developments in Financial Services

Crypto Regulatory Environment

General Crypto News

Sources:
https://bitcoinist.com/bank-of-england-cryptocurrencies-threat-not-worried/ https://bitcoinist.com/bis-bitcoin-depart-proof-of-work/ https://bitcoinist.com/london-stock-exchange-confirms-tech-sale-to-hong-kong-cryptocurrency-exchange/ https://blog.coinbase.com/announcing-new-features-and-services-to-make-trading-easier-for-high-volume-customers-in-asia-and-57a30ad08e2f?gi=fa5d40da3c9f https://coin360.io/ https://coinmarketcap.com/ https://cointelegraph.com/news/a-glimpse-into-the-future-what-happens-when-there-are-no-more-bitcoin-to-mine https://cointelegraph.com/news/bank-of-england-adviser-cryptocurrencies-fail-basic-financial-tests-lack-value https://cointelegraph.com/news/ethereum-on-chain-transaction-volume-reached-record-high-in-december-2018 https://cointelegraph.com/news/major-central-bank-institution-bis-bitcoin-must-depart-from-proof-of-work https://cointelegraph.com/news/nyse-operators-long-awaited-crypto-platform-bakkt-announces-new-key-vacancies https://cointelegraph.com/news/vulnerability-is-found-in-constantinople-hours-after-eth-devs-call-it-least-eventful-hard-fork https://twitter.com/Bakkt/status/1087729490522972163 https://www.bakkt.com/careers https://www.bis.org/publ/work765.htm https://www.coindesk.com/coinbase-adds-cross-border-wire-transfers-for-whales-in-europe-and-asia https://www.coindesk.com/dutch-financial-authorities-plan-licensing-scheme-for-crypto-exchanges https://www.coindesk.com/london-stock-exchanges-trading-tech-to-power-new-crypto-exchange https://www.dnb.nl/en/binaries/Crypto%20Uk\_tcm47-381603.pdf?2019012109 https://www.lseg.com/resources/media-centre/press-releases/lseg-technology-selected-atom-power-aax-digital-asset-exchange https://www.newsbtc.com/2019/01/22/binance-crypto-and-blockchain-event-in-singapore-a-resounding-success/
submitted by QuantalyticsResearch to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

So Brexit happened and you want to buy bitcoin from the UK? Here's how

There have been a few threads popping up lately here and in https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin asking what are the best ways to purchase bitcoin from the UK.
I am a long term seller / broker of bitcoins via various methods so I thought I would write this guide as I am being asked alot of the same questions lately.
The UK is in quite a unique position in that the UK government is very pro bitcoin. Here is George Osborne purchasing his first coins. This conflicts with many UK banks which are anti bitcoin. This has made it nearly impossible for large financial institutions to enter the UK bitcoin market. Because of this most trading is done through a large network of small brokers.
There are 3 main methods to purchase bitcoins in the UK: Marketplaces, Exchanges and OTC block trades
Marketplaces
A bitcoin Marketplace is a website that matches buyers to sellers. By far the most popular payment method is a UK bank transfer. The process works as follows:
  1. The seller will list an offer to sell bitcoins at a certain fixed rate. Lets say for example £500 per BTC (Bitcoin)
  2. The buyer can then select how much they would like to purchase, they could for example select 2 BTC and the site would calculate the total to be £1000 or they could select £750 and the site would calculate this to be 1.5 BTC
  3. Once the buyer selects how much bitcoins they would like to buy the bitcoins are removed from the sellers wallet and held in escrow by a 3rd party, almost always by the website which is facilitating the trade.
  4. After the trade has been initiated the buyer will usually have to do some verifications with the seller, this varies from site to site and seller to seller but it typically will involve showing your ID and maybe more if it is a very large amount. Some sites verify the buyer so once you are verified you can trade with every seller, other sites the buyer will have to verify with every seller they trade with typically.
  5. Once verification is complete the buyer will be presented with the sellers bank account information and the buyer will transfer £500 for example to the seller. With most UK bank accounts this is an instant transfer.
  6. Once the money has arrived in the sellers account he/she will release the bitcoins to the buyer and they will be held in the buyer wallet.
  7. This next part is very important, the buyer should now secure their bitcoins usually by moving them off the marketplace into wallets they control fully. Some marketplaces store them in cold storage.
The most popular UK marketplaces are listed in the below table:
Name Price (Currently) Trader Quality Site Usability UK Based 100% Cold storage
Bitbargain £510 High High Yes No
Bittylicious £502.50 High High Yes No
Coinfloor £496 High High Yes Yes
Localbitcoins £498.75 Medium High No No
Coinfloor works slightly differently than the other marketplaces in that there are only a few personally selected brokers. In order to get the best price is it advisable that you have a dedicated broker. Dedicated brokers get charged less fees than non-dedicated so this fee gets carried over to the buyer and in turn lower fees. If you would like me to be your dedicated coinfloor broker please email me here: [email protected] or use my live chat service here: https://www.tawk.to/LondonLink
Importantly coinfloor also keeps all customer bitcoins in cold-storage. To quote their site :
Coinfloor operates with a 100% cold storage policy. All our client bitcoins are received, stored and sent out from within multiple underground vaults which maintain the same security standards as the Bank of England.
You can read more about their security here: https://coinfloor.co.uk/security
Having a dedicated broker has many advantages, a personal relationship being the most important. You can be sure you are cared for and not ripped of. You can ask questions and advice aswell as negotiate your prices.
Bitbargain also requires all sellers to pass a test to ensure they are of the highest quality, this if often reflected in the slightly higher prices. My Bitbargain profile is here: https://bitbargain.co.uk/profile/LondonLink
If you decide to use localbitcoins its safest to use highly experienced sellers, atleast 1000+ trades, my LBC profile is here: https://localbitcoins.com/accounts/profile/LondonLink/
I have no experience with bittylicious personally but I hear it a very reputable marketplace with good prices (see above table)
To reiterate, do not keep your bitcoins on a marketplace (unless using coinfloor) as they could be hacked, lost, stolen by an employee etc etc etc
Exchanges
Bitcoin exchanges are typically used by traders who are speculating on the bitcoin price in the short term. They are not intuitive to use and not recommended for the uninitiated. Due to banking problems all exchanges require deposits to be made via international bank transfers. These usually have high upfront costs, take 1-3 days to deposit and have very high verification requirements.
If are buying bitcoins in the £5000+ range you might get a better deal on an exchange but you have to be able to read an order book and place an order, if you don't know what this is then its best to avoid them altogether or do a lot of research before you use one. Again, do not store your coins on an exchange any longer than you have too. Although they have gotten better in recent years, many exchanges have been hacked in the past, traders have no choice but to keep their coins on an exchange as they use them daily but if you don't need to keep them there, don't take that counterparty risk.
OTC (Over-the-counter) block trades
OTC trades are typically performed for large trades in the figures of £50,000 + / 100+ BTC size and above. There are many reasons for this but typically its to avoid slippage on an exchange or to buy bitcoins privately. I can arrange large OTC block trades, upto £10,000,000 with no slippage, larger trades also possible. Please contact [email protected] to discuss your needs.
If you have any questions please ask in this thread, if others contribute information I have missed I can update the OP. If they are personal / private questions please feel free to PM me or email [email protected]
This was hastily written so I will edit for grammar / spelling later.
submitted by CleaverUK to BitcoinUK [link] [comments]

Tens of billions in P2P funds enter cryptocurrency world with the hope of filling "capital holes" using speculation

Deleted my old post and reposting because of improper posting format on my part.
The following is a translation of Chinese news from a bit ago that didn't seem to have an English translation, but sounded like rather large news. Original Chinese text can be found here: https://news.p2peye.com/article-519039-1.html

Tens of billions of P2P funds enter cryptocurrency world with the hope of filling “capital holes” with speculation​

The P2P industry is currently experiencing the biggest shake-up in a long while, with a large number of platforms being removed or going out of business.
Following this shake-up, platforms, funds, practitioners, and investors have unexpectedly started migrating to the world of cryptocurrency.
Several quantitative investment teams on the market have expressed that they have received inquiries from P2P platforms. These platforms state that their funds number in the billions or even tens of billions, and ask whether or not it is possible to use these funds to speculate and double their value in around 3 months.
“The capital chain for a lot of these platforms are breaking down, so they want to use the cryptocurrency market to earn money and fill in the holes.” states Bing Qian, head of a quantitative investment team.
A dangerous game of desperation is currently being played.

01 A Dangerous Game
“I’ll give you $6 billion; you should use it to speculate on crypto’s secondary market.“ A month ago, Mr. Qian met a mysterious person in this manner.
They immediately wanted to give $6 billion to invest, but the most Mr. Qian had ever handled was $1 billion.
The thought of such massive amounts of money figuratively falling from the sky made Mr. Qian very excited.

He even started about the possibility of using $6 billion to initiate a “Soros attack” within the cryptocurrency market.
In the end, he made his plan: invest long in the futures market and raise the price of the coins, then short the futures market and pressure the price downward.
“$6 billion is enough to manipulate the price of Bitcoin.” Mr. Qian spend the night checking over and over again that this feat was indeed possible.
It was a classic play from the stock market playbook, but the biggest risk was whether or not another investor had even more funds to use and could enter into a game with him.

“If my opponent has more funds than me, the risk will be high, but if there is a large amount of orders, then it would be possible to increase the rate at which I’m making money.” states Mr. Qian. If his plan really succeeded, he though it would be spectacular and become a classic in the history of digital currency.

“Doubling $6 billion in half a year, I don’t think it’s hard.” After repeated calculations, Mr. Qian found that the possibility of ending in the red was low.
However, the mysterious person wasn’t ready to give Bing Qian that much time, giving him time limits such as only “three months” or “as soon as possible”.

Bing qian started to get suspicious and started questioning the source of the mysterious person’s funds, “I felt that they were very anxious, not like other big investors, who have a mentality of slowly but easily making money.”
After countless questions, the mysterious person finally admitted that they actually come from a P2P platform that ended up having billions of dollars worth of liabilities. “At most it can last another three months, after which it will implode if the liabilities and vulnerabilities at not addressed.”

In other words, they were prepared to use investors’ money to make a final “life or death” gamble.
“If the platform went under while I was handling the funds, then I might get implicated when the authorities step in and trace the whereabouts of the funds.” Mr. Qian tried to think of ways to mitigate the risk, but in the end every move would have been risky.
After hesitating for two weeks, he suddenly saw the platform appear on the news.
It had already imploded, and investors were collectively protecting their rights.
Mr. Qian was happy he didn’t accept the ticking time bomb, but then he realized, a shockingly large amount of P2P funds were entering the cryptocurrency market.
And brave teams had already accepted the funds.
“There are some worth millions and some worth billions; none of the sums are small.” Mr. Qian states. He has a peer that has already accepted a $500 million deal, and within 4 months has realized a 70% income.
The business has essentially given him financial freedom.
In the words of Mr. Qian, this is called “The deal of a lifetime”.
During such a violent shake-up of the P2P industry, a large number of platforms are trying to make money in this way. If they make money, then the platform continues operating; if they lose money, then they run away via bankruptcy.
According to the founders of several quantitative investment teams, the amount of P2P funds entering the cryptocurrency market is estimated to be in the tens of billions.
Mr. Qian reasons, “This could be the reason for the relatively large price swings in the market recently.
While a final stand might sound brave, it is actually just playing a very dangerous game.
Investors’ money being put into such a high-risk scenario, is P2P’s final gambit.


02 Steering Migration
Besides P2P platforms proactively moving money into the cryptocurrency market, a large amount of retail investors have also started to shift their battleground.
Most platforms that have gone under recently have been high-risk, high-interest rate platforms.
That is, users who are willing to use the platform tend to be less averse to risk.And this group of people naturally fits with speculators.
After these platforms collapse, investors start looking for new targets.
Cryptocurrency is currently marked as their next destination.
Ye He, an investor, recently earned millions of dollars through P2P lending and has been transferring it into cryptocurrency speculation.
“I allocate Bitcoin and Ethereum on a 7:3 scale” Mr. He states. Shortly after buying, Mr. He was pleasantly met with a surge in price.
He also states, “The speed and return is much higher than that of P2P”
According to P2Peye’s data, net outflow from the industry was valued at CNY¥11.27 billion.

Using East Silver Valley and MinDai TianXia as examples, from the time East Silver Valley came online until now, the net outflow of capital has been unmanageable, with a net outflow of $1.6 billion in March.
While MinDai TianXia does not have a net outflow, the net inflow between May and June has dropped off a cliff, severely decreasing.
In a survey done by data firms, 30% of investors said they would continue to invest in online lending, but only after regulation has been improved.
Another 20% said they no longer planned to invest in online lending, but instead switch to digital currencies.
Using this ratio, then in June there will be at least $2.2 billion in net inflows to the cryptocurrency market.
In addition, practitioners have been fleeing the online lending industry, leading to a massive transformation in demographics.
“Before, my friends were doing P2P, but now if they aren’t doing blockchain, then they are speculating coin prices.” an anonymous online lending businessman confesses; before you could see a lot online lending news within your circle of friends, but now when you look, it is mostly blockchain news.
“Since the beginning of the year, there have been constant calls from companies dealing with blockchain or cryptocurrency inviting me to interview.” an anonymous operational staff member of an online financial platform is quoted as saying.

The operations and market personnel in the online lending industry are highly sought after in the blockchain industry.
“The industries both have elements of wealth management, and have a lot of commonalities from the perspective of operations and market promotions, so we are poaching people from the online lending industry.” an anonymous HR personnel at a blockchain company states. They have already poached several senior executives.
The online lending industry is currently becoming the biggest reserve of human talent available to the blockchain industry.
“The recent wave of departures if very noticeable, with nearly 30% of online lending practitioners joining the cryptocurrency sector.“ says Lisa, a headhunter who specializes in online finance.
On the other hand, many P2P companies that have left the scene have also made great efforts to enter the digital currency field.
“A lot of P2P companies are created by real estate groups from Wenzhou or local rich owners. After they leave the P2P sector, they start to invest in or speculate on coin prices” says an anonymous P2P platform founder.
It is evident that many practitioners, platforms, and funds have started to collectively shift from P2P to cryptocurrency.


03 Where is the Road?
All money flows towards the highest possible yield.
There is currently a migration of money from P2P to cryptocurrency.
And the whole industry is starting to suffer from a shortage of assets.
A-Shares are trending downward, Hong Kong stocks are weak, and bank earnings are low, so many investors feel that their investment channels are very limited.
If the trade war between China and the US becomes more intense, then everyone’s risk aversion will undoubtedly get worse.
Last August, when the North Korean nuclear crisis escalated, South Korean conglomerates flooded into the cryptocurrency market.
At the time, the price of Ether rose 67% in two weeks, pushing it close to $300.
Back in June 2016, England formally decided to leave the European Union through a “Brexit referendum”.
Bitcoin rose 25% the same day, reaching a price of $714.
Some believe Bitcoin has a similar safe-haven quality to gold. The financial market uncertainty caused by Brexit has let people to choose Bitcoin.

While cryptocurrencies are slowly emerging as a new haven asset, it is not enough to prove that the transition from online lending is a wise choice.
“It may being jumping from the tiger’s den into the wolf’s den.” states Mr. Qian, “You need to pay tuition to get into this business.”
The unspoken rules and operations in this field are extremely complex. New, unfamiliar users metaphorically face a bloody battlefield.
And the P2P giants that have entered the field could become the next wave of victims.
“These people can’t play the coin market; they will be frisked down the moment they enter” states an anonymous person who helps P2P bosses enter the cryptocurrency market. In this sector, P2P bosses are still too naive.
The cryptocurrency market has not been friendly and welcoming towards the incoming funds, instead resisting it with everything they have.

Note:
Looking back at the online lending industry, it is not all doom and gloom.
An industry’s upward and downward trends are inevitable, as some leave, some will stay.
Some practitioners believe after this wave of closures, the remaining people will be the elite.
submitted by BUSD_official to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Bkash To Bitcoin & Bitcoin To Bkash Bitcoin to $10,000  Crypto Livestream Ripple's Chris Larsen, French CBDC w/ XRP & ETH, Siam Bank & BTC Whales beginning to crack? Inside a Bitcoin mine that earns $70K a day - YouTube Bitcoin $11,000+ , R3 CTO Interview , Corda Settler And Ripple XRP Settlement

A Central Bank Digital Currency would make electronic money, issued by the Bank of England, available to all households and businesses. This would allow everyone to make electronic payments in central bank money. If a CBDC were to be introduced, it would be denominated in pounds sterling, just like banknotes, so £10 of CBDC would always be worth the same as a £10 note. CBDC is sometimes ... Bitcoin’s intrinsic value has been heavily discussed in the crypto community this week following a remark by the governor of the Bank of England suggesting that the cryptocurrency may have no … Bank of England Moves Closer to Negative Interest Rates, Surveys Banks' Readiness. The Bank of England has moved closer to adopting a negative interest rate policy. The central bank has asked ... The Bank of England believes electronic currencies like Bitcoin could fundamentally change the payments industry across the world. According to The Telegraph, the bank has been analysing cryptocurrencies and the results are now part of its One Bank Research Agenda. One of the main conclusions unveiled is that Bitcoin has the power to revolutionise the way BritonsRead More Bitcoin isn’t widely accepted, isn’t backed by any government, and isn’t an IOU. As such, bitcoin and other virtual currencies and related “e-money” aren’t considered currency by the Bank of England. In effect, the Bank of England is declaring that virtual currencies aren’t within their domain to regulate.

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Bkash To Bitcoin & Bitcoin To Bkash

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