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Is Crypto Currency truly at risk due to Quantum Computers, and what can you do about it?

Is Crypto Currency truly at risk due to Quantum Computers, and what can you do about it?

There is no denying that the Quantum revolution is coming. Security protocols for the internet, banking, telecommunications, etc... are all at risk, and your Bitcoins (and alt-cryptos) are next!
This article is not really about quantum computers[i], but, rather, how they will affect the future of cryptocurrency, and what steps a smart investor will take. Since this is a complicated subject, my intention is to provide just enough relevant information without being too “techy.”

The Quantum Evolution

In 1982, Nobel winning physicist, Richard Feynman, hypothesized how quantum computers[ii] would be used in modern life.
Just one year later, Apple released the “Apple Lisa”[iii] – a home computer with a 7.89MHz processor and a whopping 5MB hard drive, and, if you enjoy nostalgia, it used 5.25in floppy disks.
Today, we walk around with portable devices that are thousands of times more powerful, and, yet, our modern day computers still work in a simple manner, with simple math, and simple operators[iv]. They now just do it so fast and efficient that we forget what’s happening behind the scenes.
No doubt, the human race is accelerating at a remarkable speed, and we’ve become obsessed with quantifying everything - from the everyday details of life to the entire universe[v]. Not only do we know how to precisely measure elementary particles, we also know how to control their actions!
Yet, even with all this advancement, modern computers cannot “crack” cryptocurrencies without the use of a great deal more computing power, and since it’s more than the planet can currently supply, it could take millions, if not billions, of years.
However, what current computers can’t do, quantum computers can!
So, how can something that was conceptualized in the 1980’s, and, as of yet, has no practical application, compromise cryptocurrencies and take over Bitcoin?
To best answer this question, let’s begin by looking at a bitcoin address.

What exactly is a Bitcoin address?

Well, in layman terms, a Bitcoin address is used to send and receive Bitcoins, and looking a bit closer (excuse the pun), it has two parts:[vi]
A public key that is openly shared with the world to accept payments. A public key that is derived from the private key. The private key is made up of 256 bits of information in a (hopefully) random order. This 256 bit code is 64 characters long (in the range of 0-9/a-f) and further compressed into a 52 character code (using RIPEMD-160).
NOTE: Although many people talk about Bitcoin encryption, Bitcoin does not use Encryption. Instead, Bitcoin uses a hashing algorithm (for more info, please see endnote below[vii]).
Now, back to understanding the private key:
The Bitcoin address “1EHNa6Q4Jz2uvNExL497mE43ikXhwF6kZm” translates to a private key of “5HpHagT65TZzG1PH3CSu63k8DbpvD8s5ip4nEB3kEsreAnchuDf” which further translates to a 256 bit private key of “0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001” (this should go without saying, but do not use this address/private key because it was compromised long ago.) Although there are a few more calculations that go behind the scenes, these are the most relevant details.
Now, to access a Bitcoin address, you first need the private key, and from this private key, the public key is derived. With current computers, it’s classically impractical to attempt to find a private key based on a public key. Simply put, you need the private key to know the public key.
However, it has already been theorized (and technically proven) that due to private key compression, multiple private keys can be used to access the same public key (aka address). This means that your Bitcoin address has multiple private keys associated with it, and, if someone accidentally discovers or “cracks” any one of those private keys, they have access to all the funds in that specific address.
There is even a pool of a few dedicated people hunting for these potential overlaps[viii], and they are, in fact, getting very efficient at it. The creator of the pool also has a website listing every possible Bitcoin private key/address in existence[ix], and, as of this writing, the pool averages 204 trillion keys per day!
But wait! Before you get scared and start panic selling, the probability of finding a Bitcoin address containing funds (or even being used) is highly unlikely – nevertheless, still possible!
However, the more Bitcoin users, the more likely a “collision” (finding overlapping private/public key pairs)! You see, the security of a Bitcoin address is simply based on large numbers! How large? Well, according to my math, 1.157920892373x1077 potential private keys exist (that number represents over 9,500 digits in length! For some perspective, this entire article contains just over 14,000 characters. Therefore, the total number of Bitcoin addresses is so great that the probability of finding an active address with funds is infinitesimal.

So, how do Quantum Computers present a threat?

At this point, you might be thinking, “How can a quantum computer defeat this overwhelming number of possibilities?” Well, to put it simple; Superposition and Entanglement[x].
Superposition allows a quantum bit (qbit) to be in multiple states at the same time. Entanglement allows an observer to know the measurement of a particle in any location in the universe. If you have ever heard Einstein’s quote, “Spooky Action at a Distance,” he was talking about Entanglement!
To give you an idea of how this works, imagine how efficient you would be if you could make your coffee, drive your car, and walk your dog all at the same time, while also knowing the temperature of your coffee before drinking, the current maintenance requirements for your car, and even what your dog is thinking! In a nutshell, quantum computers have the ability to process and analyze countless bits of information simultaneously – and so fast, and in such a different way, that no human mind can comprehend!
At this stage, it is estimated that the Bitcoin address hash algorithm will be defeated by quantum computers before 2028 (and quite possibly much sooner)! The NSA has even stated that the SHA256 hash algorithm (the same hash algorithm that Bitcoin uses) is no longer considered secure, and, as a result, the NSA has now moved to new hashing techniques, and that was in 2016! Prior to that, in 2014, the NSA also invested a large amount of money in a research program called “Penetrating Hard Targets project”[xi] which was used for further Quantum Computer study and how to break “strong encryption and hashing algorithms.” Does NSA know something they’re not saying or are they just preemptively preparing?
Nonetheless, before long, we will be in a post-quantum cryptography world where quantum computers can crack crypto addresses and take all the funds in any wallet.

What are Bitcoin core developers doing about this threat?

Well, as of now, absolutely nothing. Quantum computers are not considered a threat by Bitcoin developers nor by most of the crypto-community. I’m sure when the time comes, Bitcoin core developers will implement a new cryptographic algorithm that all future addresses/transactions will utilize. However, will this happen before post-quantum cryptography[xii]?
Moreover, even after new cryptographic implementation, what about all the old addresses? Well, if your address has been actively used on the network (sending funds), it will be in imminent danger of a quantum attack. Therefore, everyone who is holding funds in an old address will need to send their funds to a new address (using a quantum safe crypto-format). If you think network congestion is a problem now, just wait…
Additionally, there is the potential that the transition to a new hashing algorithm will require a hard fork (a soft fork may also suffice), and this could result in a serious problem because there should not be multiple copies of the same blockchain/ledger. If one fork gets attacked, the address on the other fork is also compromised. As a side-note, the blockchain Nebulas[xiii] will have the ability to modify the base blockchain software without any forks. This includes adding new and more secure hashing algorithms over time! Nebulas is due to be released in 2018.

Who would want to attack Bitcoin?

Bitcoin and cryptocurrency represent a threat to the controlling financial system of our modern economy. Entire countries have outright banned cryptocurrency[xiv] and even arrested people[xv], and while discrediting it, some countries are copying cryptocurrency to use (and control) in their economy[xvi]!
Furthermore, Visa[xvii], Mastercard[xviii], Discover[xix], and most banks act like they want nothing to do with cryptocurrency, all the while seeing the potential of blockchain technology and developing their own[xx]. Just like any disruptive technology, Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies have their fair share of enemies!
As of now, quantum computers are being developed by some of the largest companies in the world, as well as private government agencies.
No doubt, we will see a post-quantum cryptography world sooner than most realize. By that point, who knows how long “3 letter agencies” will have been using quantum technology - and what they’ll be capable of!

What can we do to protect ourselves today?

Of course, the best option is to start looking at how Bitcoin can implement new cryptographic features immediately, but it will take time, and we have seen how slow the process can be just for scaling[xxi].
The other thing we can do is use a Bitcoin address only once for outgoing transactions. When quantum computers attack Bitcoin (and other crypto currencies), their first target will be addresses that have outgoing transactions on the blockchain that contain funds.
This is due to the fact that when computers first attempt to crack a Bitcoin address, the starting point is when a transaction becomes public. In other words, when the transaction is first signed – a signed transaction is a digital signature derived from the private key, and it validates the transaction on the network. Compared to classical computers, quantum computers can exponentially extrapolate this information.
Initially, Bitcoin Core Software might provide some level of protection because it only uses an address once, and then sends the remaining balance (if any) to another address in your keypool. However, third party Bitcoin wallets can and do use an address multiple times for outgoing transactions. For instance, this could be a big problem for users that accept donations (if they don’t update their donation address every time they remove funds). The biggest downside to Bitcoin Core Software is the amount of hard-drive space required, as well as diligently retaining an up-to-date copy of the entire blockchain ledger.
Nonetheless, as quantum computers evolve, they will inevitably render SHA256 vulnerable, and although this will be one of the first hash algorithms cracked by quantum computers, it won’t be the last!

Are any cryptocurrencies planning for the post-quantum cryptography world?

Yes, indeed, there are! Here is a short list of ones you may want to know more about:

Full disclosure:

Although I am in no way associated with any project listed above, I do hold coins in all as well as Bitcoin, Litecoin and many others.
The thoughts above are based on my personal research, but I make no claims to being a quantum scientist or cryptographer. So, don’t take my word for anything. Instead, do your own research and draw your own conclusions. I’ve included many references below, but there are many more to explore.
In conclusion, the intention of this article is not to create fear or panic, nor any other negative effects. It is simply to educate. If you see an error in any of my statements, please, politely, let me know, and I will do my best to update the error.
Thanks for reading!

References

[i] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JhHMJCUmq28 – A great video explaining quantum computers.
[ii] https://www.doc.ic.ac.uk/~nd/surprise_97/journal/vol4/spb3/ - A brief history of quantum computing.
[iii] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_Lisa - More than you would ever want to know about the Apple Lisa.
[iv] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tpIctyqH29Q&list=PL8dPuuaLjXtNlUrzyH5r6jN9ulIgZBpdo - Want to learn more about computer science? Here is a great crash course for it!
[v] https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/quantify - What does quantify mean?
[vi] https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Private_key - More info about Bitcoin private keys.
[vii] https://www.securityinnovationeurope.com/blog/page/whats-the-difference-between-hashing-and-encrypting - A good example of the deference between Hash and Encryption
[viii] https://lbc.cryptoguru.org/stats - The Large Bitcoin Collider.
[ix] http://directory.io/ - A list of every possible Bitcoin private key. This website is a clever way of converting the 64 character uncompressed key to the private key 128 at a time. Since it is impossible to save all this data in a database and search, it is not considered a threat! It’s equated with looking for a single needle on the entire planet.
[x] https://uwaterloo.ca/institute-for-quantum-computing/quantum-computing-101#Superposition-and-entanglement – Brief overview of Superposition and Entanglement.
[xi] https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/nsa-seeks-to-build-quantum-computer-that-could-crack-most-types-of-encryption/2014/01/02/8fff297e-7195-11e3-8def-a33011492df2_story.html?utm_term=.e05a9dfb6333 – A review of the Penetrating Hard Targets project.
[xii] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-quantum_cryptography - Explains post-quantum cryptography.
[xiii] https://www.nebulas.io/ - The nebulas project has some amazing technology planned in their roadmap. They are currently in testnet stage with initial launch expected taking place in a few weeks. If you don’t know about Nebulas, you should check them out. [xiv] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legality_of_bitcoin_by_country_or_territory - Country’s stance on crypto currencies.
[xv] https://www.cnbc.com/2017/08/30/venezuela-is-one-of-the-worlds-most-dangerous-places-to-mine-bitcoin.html - Don’t be a miner in Venezuela!
[xvi] http://www.newsweek.com/russia-bitcoin-avoid-us-sanctions-cryptocurrency-768742 - Russia’s plan for their own crypto currency.
[xvii] http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/2018/01/05/visa-locks-bitcoin-payment-cards-crackdown-card-issue - Recent attack from visa against crypto currency.
[xviii] https://www.ccn.com/non-government-digital-currency-junk-says-mastercard-ceo-rejecting-bitcoin/ - Mastercards position about Bitcoin.
[xix] http://www.livebitcoinnews.com/discover-joins-visa-mastercard-barring-bitcoin-support/ - Discovers position about Bitcoin.
[xx] http://fortune.com/2017/10/20/mastercard-blockchain-bitcoin/ - Mastercard is making their own blockchain.
[xxi] https://bitcoincore.org/en/2015/12/21/capacity-increase/ - News about Bitcoin capacity. Not a lot of news…
[xxii] https://learn.iota.org/faq/what-makes-iota-quantum-secure - IOTA and quantum encryption.
[xxiii] https://eprint.iacr.org/2011/191.pdf - The whitepaper of Winternitz One-Time Signature Scheme
[xxiv] https://cardanoroadmap.com/ - The Cardano project roadmap.
[xxv] https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/490 - More about the BLISS hash system.
[xxvi] https://www.ethereum.org/ - Home of the Ethereum project.
[xxvii] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SHA-3#Security_against_quantum_attacks – SHA3 hash algorithm vs quantum computers.
[xxviii] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lamport_signature - Lamport signature information.
[xxix] https://theqrl.org/ - Home of the Quantum Resistant Ledger project.
submitted by satoshibytes to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Technical discussion of Gavin's O(1) block propagation proposal

I think there isn't wide appreciation of how important Gavin's proposal is for the scalability of Bitcoin. It's the real deal, and will get us out of this sort of beta mode we've been in of a few transactions per second globally. I spent a few hours reviewing the papers referenced at the bottom of his excellent write-up and think I get it now.
If you already get it, then hang around and answer questions from me and others. If you don't get it yet, start by very carefully reading https://gist.github.com/gavinandresen/e20c3b5a1d4b97f79ac2.
The big idea is twofold: fix the miner's incentives to align better with users wanting transactions to clear, and eliminate the sending of redundant data in the newblock message when a block is solved to save bandwidth.
I'll use (arbitrarily) a goal of 1 million tx per block, which is just over 1000 TPS. This seems pretty achievable, without a lot of uncertainty. Really! Read on.
Today, a miner really wants to propagate a solved block as soon as possible to not jeopardize their 25 BTC reward. It's not the cpu cost for handling the transactions on the miner's side that's the problem, it's the sending of a larger newblock message around the network that just might cause her block to lose a race condition with another solution to the block.
So aside from transactions with fees of more than 0.0008 BTC that can make up for this penalty (https://gist.github.com/gavinandresen/5044482), or simply the goodwill of benevolent pools to process transactions, there is today an incentive for miners not to include transactions in a block. The problem is BTC price has grown so high so fast that 0.0008 BTC is about 50 cents, which is high for day-to-day transactions (and very high for third world transactions).
The whole idea centers around an old observation that since the network nodes (including miners) have already received transactions by the normal second-by-second operation of the p2p network, the newblock announcement message shouldn't have to repeat the transaction details. Instead, it can just tell people, hey, I approve these particular transactions called XYZ, and you can check me by taking your copy of those same transactions that you already have and running the hash to check that my header is correctly solved. Proof of work.
A basic way to do this would be to send around a Bloom filter in the newblock message. A receiving node would check all the messages they have, see which of them are in this solved block, and mark them out of their temporary memory pool. Using a BF calculator you can see that you need about 2MB in order to get an error rate of 10e-6 for 1 million entries. 2MB gives 16 million bits which is enough to almost always be able to tell if a tx that you know about is in the block or not.
There are two problems with this: there may be transactions in the solved block that you don't have, for whatever p2p network or policy reason. The BF can't tell you what those are. It can just tell you there were e.g. 1,000,000 tx in this solved block and you were able to find only 999,999 of them. The other glitch is that of those 999,999 it told you were there, a couple could be false positives. I think there are ways you could try to deal with this--send more types of request messages around the network to fill in your holes--but I'll dismiss this and flip back to Gavin's IBLT instead.
The IBLT works super well to mash a huge number of transactions together into one fixed-size (O(1)) data structure, to compare against another set of transactions that is really close, with just a few differences. The "few differences" part compared to the size of the IBLT is critical to this whole thing working. With too many differences, the decode just fails and the receiver wouldn't be able to understand this solved block.
Gavin suggests key size of 8B and data of 8B chunks. I don't understand his data size--there's a big key checksum you need in order to do full add and subtract of IBLTs (let's say 8B, although this might have to be 16B?) that I would rather amortize over more granular data chunks. The average tx is 250B anyway. So I'm going to discuss an 8B key and 64B data chunks. With a count field, this then gives 8 key + 64 data + 16 checksum + 4 count = 92B. Let's round to 100B per IBLT cell.
Let's say we want to fix our newblock message size to around 1MB, in order to not be too alarming for the change to this scheme from our existing 1MB block limit (that miners don't often fill anyway). This means we can have an IBLT with m=10K, or 10,000 cells, which with the 1.5d rule (see the papers) means we can tolerate about 6000 differences in cells, which because we are slicing transactions into multiple cells (4 on average), means we can handle about 1500 differences in transactions at the receiver vs the solver and have faith that we can decode the newblock message fully almost all the time (has to be some way to handle the occasional node that fails this and has to catch up).
So now the problem becomes, how can we define some conventions so that the different nodes can mostly agree on which of the transactions flying around the network for the past N (~10) minutes should be included in the solved block. If the solver gets it wrong, her block doesn't get accepted by the rest of the network. Strong incentive! If the receiver gets it wrong (although she can try multiple times with different sets), she can't track the rest of the network's progress.
This is the genius part around this proposal. If we define the convention so that the set of transactions to be included in a block is essentially all of them, then the miners are strongly incentivized, not just by tx fees, but by the block reward itself to include all those transactions that happened since the last block. It still allows them to make their own decisions, up to 1500 tx could be added where convention would say not to, or not put in where convention says to. This preserves the notion of tx-approval freedom in the network for miners, and some later miner will probably pick up those straggler tx.
I think it might be important to provide as many guidelines for the solver as possible to describe what is in her block, in specific terms as possible without actually having to give tx ids, so that the receivers in their attempt to decode this block can build up as similar an IBLT on their side using the same rules. Something like the tx fee range, some framing of what tx are in the early part and what tx are near the end (time range I mean). Side note: I guess if you allow a tx fee range in this set of parameters, then the solver could put it real high and send an empty block after all, which works against the incentive I mentioned above, so maybe that particular specification is not beneficial.
From http://www.tik.ee.ethz.ch/file/49318d3f56c1d525aabf7fda78b23fc0/P2P2013_041.pdf for example, the propagation delay is about 30-40 seconds before almost all nodes have received any particular transaction, so it may be useful for the solver to include tx only up to a certain point in time, like 30 seconds ago. Any tx that is younger than this just waits until the next block, so it's not a big penalty. But some policy like this (and some way to communicate it in the absence of centralized time management among the nodes) will be important to keep the number of differences in the two sets small, below 1500 in my example. The receiver of the newblock message would know when trying to decode it, that they should build up an IBLT on their side also with tx only from up to 30 seconds ago.
I don't understand Gavin's requirement for canonical ordering. I see that it doesn't hurt, but I don't see the requirement for it. Can somebody elaborate? It seems that's his way to achieve the same framing that I am talking about in the previous paragraph, to obtain a minimum number of differences in the two sets. There is no need to clip the total number of tx in a block that I see, since you can keep shoving into the IBLT as much as you want, as long as the number of differences is bounded. So I don't see a canonical ordering being required for clipping the tx set. The XOR (or add-subtract) behavior of the IBLT doesn't require any ordering in the sets that I see, it's totally commutative. Maybe it's his way of allowing miners some control over what tx they approve, how many tx into this canonical order they want to get. But that would also allow them to send around solved empty blocks.
What is pretty neat about this from a consumer perspective is the tx fees could be driven real low, like down to the network propagation minimum which I think as of this spring per Mike Hearn is now 0.00001 BTC or 10 "bits" (1000 satoshis), half a US cent. Maybe that's a problem--the miners get the shaft without being able to bid on which transactions they approve. If they try to not approve too many tx their block won't be decoded by the rest of the network like all the non-mining nodes running the bitpay/coinbases of the world.
Edit: 10 bits is 1000 satoshis, not 10k satoshis
submitted by sandball to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

05-12 07:06 - 'My journey to exchange BTC for Fiat via ATM' (self.Bitcoin) by /u/Rossman01 removed from /r/Bitcoin within 979-984min

'''
Great, you’ve earned yourself some money - but you were paid in Bitcoin. You know how to use it, but what if you need cash?? This is a great question, and likely one to be asked millions more times with the gradual adoption and use of Bitcoin as a fiat. Many Bitcoiners would love to have a place where they can quickly go and hawk some BTC. Well I had the same need and have embarked on a journey to do exactly that, and along the way, help others avoid some of the obvious pitfalls that come along with the effort. The plan is to periodically visit some of these ATM’s here in my local area and report as to whether they are really still in operation and if they are meant to dispense cash, are they? Are they in a good neighborhood or is it better to visit during the daylight hours, etc.?
The first location checked out is Marina Smoke Shop in Huntington Beach, CA (949-431-5122) - I called to verify it’s “2-way” status. The shopkeeper didn’t quite understand me and the store is only a few minutes drive from my house; So I took a trip to see the machine for myself. There are two things I could have learned before I arrived.. One, RIF (Reading Is Fundamental) - If I had only read into it further, I would have learned that at the bottom of the reviews on CoinATM Radar ([link]1 ) That there is a note lending to the type of coin and direction; then further down to simplify it, whether you can buy or sell or both from this specific ATM (This HB ATM is one-way -> Fiat to BTC). Two, even if you call the location, the shop keeper may have no idea what the ATM in their store does, since it’s likely the store owner isn’t the ATM owner. The lesson, do more research than you think is necessary before burning your gas. If you only need to buy BTC, this machine will work for you as of 05/01/2016. The machine type at this location is a “Genesis Coin”
Alas, my first search wasn’t so successful, I did learn the above and continue happily on my way through trial and investigative error. Additional investigation gave way to new excitement as I learned that Jacks Liquor near LAX (in the city of Inglewood) is also described as a two-way machine; it even appears that way locating the machine through the above link. Great!! With this information in hand, I decide to check it out without the need to make a phone call and head out on my way - an approximate 45 minute drive.
This machine is a bit off the Freeway and in a neighborhood I would call, a little “Sketchy”. It may be a “2-way” machine as advertised, but the one at this location turns out to have the exact same scenario as the other (set to “sell only”), so was a little disturbed when I realized it. Then, when asked why the machine wasn’t set for bi-directional, the little oriental man behind the counter who assumably didn’t speak a lick of English, raised his hands and shrugged. I left visibly perturbed and kicked myself for not making the simple phone call that could have helped me avoid this trip. So, for you my readers...This machine type is a “General Bytes” and only operates to “Sell”
Although the link shows this ATM as “Two-way”, it is not. It would not be wise to jump off a plane thinking you can quickly trade your BTC for cash here because it’s close to LAX - This machine at Jack’s is set to only Sell BTC to customers - not trade it back. Best to continue on to the Westfield Mall (Described below).
Had I continued up the Freeway another ten minutes or so (as suggested above), I would have made it to the Westfield-Culver City Mall where there is a Lamassu type 2-way machine (6000 Sepulveda Blvd CulverCity, CA - Located on the first floor near JC Penney) accessible during Mall hours. The notes for this machine indicate that it was recently updated in April of 2016 to 2 way status - That’s a good sign, considering it’s now only May 2016. I should have made a stop here before returning home from Jack’s, but then, I wouldn’t have started this article. Live and learn; instead, I’m heading there next in my continuing mission.
This was an interesting experience. I found the machine no problem, and using it wasn’t a technical feat; very easy. Click sell, click how much, then the machine displays the address to send it to; Also, if you have your “pairing code” on your iPhone or android, then you can make your transaction by showing it to the little window at the lower left hand area of the machine. Be sure to include the amount of a fee, as the blockchain will set your transaction to the side and not process it for a long time. This happened to me, which sent me on an additional quest: Make contact with the owneoperator of the machine for assistance. Both the Manufacturer of the machine and Owner were prompt, knowledgeable, friendly, sensitive to my situation and helpful in resolving the issue. In fact, The Owner (Kais ([email protected])) happens to live in my area, and due to the distance between me and CulverCity, offered to help me personally for future transactions. He also advised that there will be a new 2-way ATM HeroCoin will be installing in Corona, CA soon - This is a main route into and out of Orange County, out towards San Bernardino and out towards Barstow. This was a great outcome that could have gone completely the other way. Be careful with how much you send to yourself and be sure to include a fee, you may just end up waiting thousands of minutes until the miner-nodes decide it’s worth it to pick up. Thanks Herocoin.co - Great customer service!
...and So, there I am.... next are some I haven’t yet visited, but plan to in my effort to flip out some Satoshis - and will update this string accordingly.
Further up the freeway, there is a 2-way machine at Meltdown Comics in West Hollywood -> 7522 Sunset Blvd - Los Angeles CA 90046 11am-9pm daily (Store Hours). This is a “BitAccess” machine where you send yourself some BTC by going to the website and depositing there (“cash.bitaccess.co”). The machine will hold it for you and has it waiting when you arrive to any BitAccess machine; it’s called “Remote Initiation Process” - The benefit described for this is no validation time required once you get there. It’s ready and waiting for you. It seems like a pretty good location considering the general BTC audience; “er, Comic Book Store?? ...Works on multiple levels“. I’ve not yet visited this store.
I also checked South on another machine (it turns out, there are two in the same complex area run by the same administrator) nearer to San Diego. I found an article claiming “California’s First 2-Way Bitcoin ATM” which was written in January 2016 and appeared in CryptoCoin News ([link]2 ... atm-opens/), considering the article is now several months old and the distance from me to Encinitas is long, I shot an email out to the machines admin contact (CoinOutlet.io). I was again impressed with how the admin responded right away, confirmed that the machine (located in, “Surf Brothers Teriyaki” 274 N. El Camino Real, Encinitas, CA) is currently working, and finally, asked to work with me to help avoid a wasted trip to an empty machine. I like that, prompt, professional, and helpful. The second machine is close by at Camino Village Plaza 256 N. El Camino Real, Encinitas, CA. Although there are a couple of closer machines to check out, these two are going to stay on my list to visit. These machines are CoinOutlet type machines - I’ve been able to locate instructions on use for any of these machines on YouTube.com.
Thank you for reading my post, I enjoyed writing it for you; this is not the end but just the beginning. I plan to continue visiting and reviewing more. If this article helped you to save Time, Gas, Confusion, Avoid costly mistakes or any other additional Effort... or if it helped you make a decision, pointed you toward the next awesome idea, or inspired you to other Greatness;
Please kindly consider donating to my bitcoin address:
1HL2WSg7Bqtfk119GnZb8Fsy5rRxmzPLYB
Bitcoin donations of any amount will make me happy and keep me inspired to continue this journey. I also hope it will help educate and promote locations and the use of ATM’s to monetize BTC and get it to the Masses of people and into the mainstream Marketplace. If you are the owner or operator of a Bitcoin ATM located in Southern California and would like a visit and subsequent review of your atm location, Please contact me through this post or PM here at the website, Thank you very much.
'''
My journey to exchange BTC for Fiat via ATM
Go1dfish undelete link
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BtcMines Club  New Bitcoin Miner  Review Antminer S9 16nm Bitcoin Miner Test Video - YouTube SINKT DER BITCOIN AUF $6000 USD ? AntMiner U1 USB Bitcoin Miner Test Video Miner Life Review

To better illustrate the importance of miners capitulating, here’s a chart from industry podcaster and Bitcoin bull Preston Pysh. As Pysh’s chart below clearly depicts, the mining capitulation what preceded the now-infamous 50% crash from $6,000 to a price just above $3,000 in late-2018. Furthermore, the last miner capitulation that was seen late last year was followed by a 20% drop lower ... The Bitcoin Miner Review. This The Bitcoin Miner software is being introduced by founder and CEO Mr. Dan Manson that created The Bitcoin Miner system describes itself as “a group reserved exclusively to people who jumped on the insane returns that Bitcoin offers and have quietly amassed a fortune in doing so.”By joining The Bitcoin Miner ... The Bitcoin Miner app is actually just a scam & rather than being designed to help you “mine Bitcoins for-profit” like it claims it’s actually just set out to take your cash from you instead. The reason I can say that so confidently is because I’ve actually seen this scam before back when it was called just BTCMiner , and it also then launched under the different name of Crypto Revolt . Quadro 6000 Bitcoin mining. Autocad 2011 and great hardware questions. Hi everyone,I am planning to get a new desktop computer and have been perusing the various companies that make workstations and I'm unclear on some things. First off, I use Autocad for architectural drafting. I don't render nor use 3D. I may get into Revit at some point, but for now it's 2D drafting as well as some ... If you are looking for trusted and legit Bitcoin Investment Sites, below we’ll give you the updated list of the best ones for 2020.. eToro (official website) and Plus500 (official website) are some of those, according to the thousands of users who trade everyday with no commissions using those two CFD brokers.

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BtcMines Club New Bitcoin Miner Review

Should you buy a pre-built btc cryptocurrency mining rig? The answer depends, lets review the Coinmine One and discuss the status of gpu mining in 2019 and t... Ethereum Pumps up 8% and Bitcoin takes on the big $6000 Resistance. With the combined power of Bitcoin miners and Institutional investors push Bitcoin higher... Instruction and Review for Antminer S17 Bitcoin Miner - Duration: 5:18. EastShore Mining Devices 2,494 views. 5:18. Antminer L3+ Litecoin Miner Performance Test Two - Duration: 2:38. ... The Antminer S9 is the newest 16nm bitcoin miner. This submodel of the miner in the video is 11.85TH/s @ 1185w. Visit Eastshore Mining Devices(https://www.ea... We are miners from 2013 looking to create community and help train and learn together as blockchain tech changes so quickly. Leave your thoughts in the comments, call in, ask us anything. Thank ...

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